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中国积极布局“蓝色经济通道”

2017-07-17    来源:FT    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

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July 16, 2017

Chinese purchases of overseas ports top $20bn in past year
中国积极布局“蓝色经济通道”


过去一年里中国对境外港口项目投资翻番,达到200亿美元,这些港口均靠近中国在6月提出的三条关键海上航线。

China is ramping up acquisitions of overseas ports as it expands its reach as a maritime power, doubling its investments in port projects over the past year to $20bn and pushing ahead with plans to open new shipping routes through the Arctic circle.

中国正在加大力度收购境外港口,扩展其作为海上大国的触角范围。过去一年里中国对港口项目投资翻番,达到200亿美元,并且在推进开辟北冰洋新航线的计划。

The locations of the ports set for Chinese investments cluster around three “blue economic passages” that Beijing named in June as crucial to the success of “One Belt One Road”, a grand scheme to win diplomatic allies and open markets in around 65 countries between Asia and Europe.

迎来中国投资的港口均靠近中国在6月提出的三条“蓝色经济通道”,北京方面称,这些通道对于宏伟的“一带一路”计划(目的是在亚洲和欧洲大约65个国家争取外交盟友和打开市场)取得成功至关重要。

A study by Grisons Peak, a London-based investment bank, found that Chinese companies have announced plans to buy or invest in nine overseas ports in the year to end-June in projects valued at a total of $20.1bn. In addition, discussions are underway for investments in several other ports, for which no value has been divulged.

总部位于伦敦的投资银行Grisons Peak的一项研究发现,在截至6月底的一年里,中资企业已宣布相关计划,拟收购或投资于9个境外港口,这些项目的总价值达到201亿美元。此外,对其他几个港口进行投资的方案正在讨论中,但价值不详。

This level of activity represents a sharp acceleration from the $9.97bn in Chinese overseas port projects in the year to end-June 2016, according to Financial Times estimates.

根据英国《金融时报》的估算,相对于截至2016年6月底的一年里中国对境外港口项目投资的99.7亿美元,这一活动水平是一个急剧加速。

“In the past year, China has now announced…all three of its blue economic passages, so it is not surprising to see this significant level of increased investment in ports and shipping,” said Henry Tillman, chief executive of Grisons Peak.

“过去一年里,中国公布了其所有三条蓝色经济通道,所以看到中资对港口和航运的投资水平显著增加并不让人意外,”Grisons Peak首席执行官亨利•蒂尔曼(Henry Tillman)表示。

The importance of one of the three maritime routes, which runs from China to the Indian ocean and then onward to the Mediterranean, shows up particularly clearly in the newly announced investments.

三条海上航线之一是从中国到印度洋,再到地中海的航线,它的重要性在新近宣布的投资中尤为明显。

Four separate initiatives are set for Malaysia, with Chinese company investments scheduled for the $7.2bn Melaka Gateway, the $2.84bn Kuala Linggi Port, the $1.4bn Penang Port and the $177m Kuantan port projects, according to company announcements.

根据公司公告,中资公司的四个投资项目将在马来西亚上马:72亿美元的马六甲皇京港(Melaka Gateway),28.4亿美元的瓜拉宁宜国际港(Kuala Linggi Port),14亿美元的槟城港(Penang Port)以及1.77亿美元的关丹港(Kuantan Port)项目。

In Indonesia, Ningbo Zhoushan Port company plans to invest $590m into the Kalibaru project, an expansion of Tanjung Priok, the country’s largest port.

在印度尼西亚,宁波舟山港公司计划向印尼最大港口雅加达丹戎不碌港(Tanjung Priok)的卡里布鲁(Kalibaru)港扩建项目投资5.9亿美元。

Jing Gu, an expert at the Institute of Development Studies at Sussex University, said the focus on Southeast Asia represented an example of Beijing’s efforts to create ‘good neighbourly’ relations in the region. “However, it is also rather controversial with continuing issues over territorial sovereignty and over China’s economic strength and its resources needs,” added Ms Gu, who is director of the university’s Centre for Rising Powers and Global Development.

苏塞克斯大学(Sussex University)发展研究所(Institute of Development Studies)专家顾晶(音)表示,关注东南亚是北京方面在该地区努力建立“睦邻友好关系”的一个例子。“然而,鉴于围绕领土主权以及中国经济实力和资源需求的持续存在的问题,这也是相当有争议的,”顾晶补充说,她是该校崛起力量及全球发展中心(Centre for Rising Powers and Global Development)主任。

Another of the three maritime routes attracting attention is that from China to Europe via the Arctic Ocean. This route could potentially cut the journey time by several days. One planned project involves a new deepwater port near Arkhangelsk, on Russia’s White Sea, and a railway deep into Siberia.

令人瞩目的三条海上航线中另外一条是从中国经过北冰洋到达欧洲的航线。这条路线有望将航行时间缩短数天。一个规划中的项目涉及濒临俄罗斯白海的阿尔汉格尔斯克(Arkhangelsk)附近一个新的深水港口,以及一条深入西伯利亚的铁路。

A plan by Poly Group, a Chinese state-owned enterprise, to lead investment in both the port and railway received new impetus this spring with a visit to Arkhangelsk by Wang Yang, a Chinese deputy premier, Chinese officials said.

中国官员们表示,由中国国有的保利集团(Poly Group)牵头投资于港口和铁路项目的计划,在今年春天中国副总理汪洋访问阿尔汉格尔斯克之后获得新的推动力。

Klaipeda, a Lithuanian port and feeder for Arctic route traffic, has attracted investment proposals from China Merchants, a port operator, to build a large new container port. Talks have also taken place over a potential Chinese port investments at Kirkenes, a Norwegian port on the Barents sea, and at two ports in Iceland, according to people close to the discussions.

北极航线的一个喂给港——立陶宛克莱佩达(Klaipeda)港吸引了招商局港口(China Merchants)的投资提议,目的是建设一个新的大型集装箱港口。据知情人士透露,已经在洽谈的其他潜在中资港口投资项目包括濒临巴伦支海的挪威港口希尔克内斯(Kirkenes),以及冰岛的两个港口。

Some of China’s port investments raise questions over whether Beijing is pursuing an undeclared strategic agenda in the guise of pursuing commerce, said Jonathan Hillman, a director at the Center for Strategic and International Studies.

“Strategically, port ownership opens the door to non-commercial activities like hosting military forces and collecting intelligence, said Mr Hillman. “But aside from grand strategy, there’s also lowly politics. Interest groups in China and partner countries are eager to participate in new projects, and now they can do so under the expansive banner of China’s Belt and Road initiative,” he added.

战略与国际研究中心(Center for Strategic and International Studies)的一名主任乔纳森•希尔曼(Jonathan Hillman)表示,中国的某些港口投资令人质疑:北京方面是不是在以追逐商业为幌子,推进一个未曾公开的战略议程?

“从战略上看,港口所有权为驻扎军队和收集情报等非商业活动打开了大门,”希尔曼表示。“但是除了宏大战略之外,还有低端的政治因素在起作用。中国和伙伴国家的某些利益集团热切希望参与新项目,现在他们可以在中国‘一带一路’的大招牌下这么做,”他补充说。

 



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