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全球最难学的十大语言

2014-01-15    来源:China.org.cn    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

Top 10 hardest languages to learn

有很多种语言都号称是世界上最难学会的语言。联合国教科文组织曾经公布过世界十大难学语言的名单,及其为何难学的解释,让我们来看看它们是否名副其实。

Many languages have been claimed to be the toughest one to learn. Here follow ten candidates for the title of "hardest language to learn," as released by the United Nations Educational Scientific and Cultural Organization. This list of 10 candidates includes an explanation as of why they made this list. Read it and find out whether these languages are worth their "tough as nails" reputation.

#10 法语(French)

作为29个国家的官方语言,法语是一门非常具有挑战性的语言。然而,学习法语到底是难还是不难,还要看学习者的母语为何。如果学习者本身能够熟练地掌握一门拉丁语系的语言,如意大利语、葡萄牙语或西班牙语等,那么他们学起法语来也会又快又容易;而对那些母语并非拉丁语系的学习者来说,学习法语就困难得多。法语的发音规则性很强,更多是基于历史因素而不是语音学原理;一般情况下,看见一个单词的拼写就能知道这个单词的发音。

As an official language in 29 countries, French is a challenging language. However, it can be seen as both easy and hard, depending on the learner's native language. French is a Roman language. If the learner's grasp of other Roman languages such as Italian, Portuguese and Spanish is strong, French will be a very quick and enjoyable new language to acquire. Otherwise, for those coming from a completely different language family, learning French would be considerably more difficult. Its pronunciation follows very strict rules based on the spelling, which is often based more on history than phonology.

#9 丹麦语(Danish)

丹麦语属于北日尔曼语支,使用人口近600万。不同于其他多种语言,大量丹麦语词汇在书写形式上并不符合发音规则,因此丹麦语的发音对于学习这种语言的人来说是非常难于掌握的。

Danish is a North Germanic language spoken by some 6 million people. The sound system of Danish is in many ways unusual among the world's languages, which makes it one of the hardest languages in the world to learn, as the spoken language usually does not sound anything like its written version.

#8 挪威语(Norwegian)

Norwegian is a North Germanic language spoken primarily in Norway, where it is the official language. It is among the world's languages that's the most difficult to learn how to speak well. No officially sanctioned standard of spoken Norwegian is in place and most Norwegians speak their own dialect at any given time.

#7 德语(German)

德语是世界几大重要语言之一;在欧盟,以德语为母语的人口最多。德语包含了几种标准的方言,从口语到书写方式都各不相同。德语是一种屈折语,名词分为阳性、中性和阴性三种,由相同的词根可以衍生出很多不同的词汇。

As one of the world's major languages, German holds the largest number of native speakers within the European Union. It is a language which contains several standard dialects, both in its spoken and written forms. As an inflected language with three grammatical genders, it has a large number of words deriving from the same root.

#6 芬兰语(Finnish)

在芬兰,绝大多数的人口都说芬兰语。芬兰语的语法极端复杂,包含着无穷无尽的派生词后缀,因而十分难学。芬兰语惯于使用大量的修饰成分去修饰动词、名词、代词、形容词和数词,基于其所担任的句子成分不同而有所变化。

As a language spoken by the majority of the population in Finland, Finnish is hard to learn for its extremely complicated grammar and "endless derivative suffixes." Finnish employs extensive modifiers to verbs, nouns, pronouns, adjectives and numerals, depending on their roles in the sentence.

#5 日语(Japanese)

Japanese is an East Asian language spoken primarily in Japan. According to documents, Chinese had a considerable influence on the vocabulary and phonology of Old Japanese. Since 1945, it has borrowed a large number of words from English, especially vocabulary relating to technology. One major reason which makes the language so hard to learn is that the written code is different from the spoken code. In addition, Japanese has an extensive grammatical system to express politeness and formalities.

#4 冰岛语(Icelandic)

冰岛语是冰岛本土所使用的主要语言,属印欧语系日耳曼语族北支。冰岛语的难点在于古老的词汇和复杂的语法规则。冰岛语保留着许多不同古日耳曼语的语法特征;另外,现代冰岛语是一种高度的屈折语。

Icelandic, a North Germanic language, is the main language of Iceland. Icelandic is hard to learn because of its archaic vocabulary and complex grammar. Icelandic retains many grammatical features of other ancient Germanic languages, and modern Icelandic is still a heavily inflected language.

#3 阿拉伯语(Arabic)

阿拉伯语属于亚非语系(又称闪含语系),包括标准阿拉伯语和中东、北非、非洲之角等地区的口语方言。阿拉伯语的构词法有独特而复杂的规则,通常一个词根可派生出若干含有不同时态的动词和不同含义的名词。例如:标准阿拉伯语的名词有性、数、格、式(即确指或泛指)的区别,其在语句中的地位由词尾的各种变化来显示。

Arabic, belonging to the Afro-Asiatic language family, includes both the literary language and varieties of Arabic spoken across the Middle East, North Africa, and the Horn of Africa. The language has a complex and unusual method in constructing words from a basic root. For instance, nouns in Literary Arabic have three grammatical cases, three numbers, two genders and three "states."

#2 希腊语(Greek)

希腊语是印欧语系中最早有文字记录的语言之一,广泛应用于希腊、塞浦路斯等国。从古至今,希腊语的音节结构始终保持不变。它的混合音节结构允许相对复杂的声音组合存在;另外,希腊语拥有大量的派生词缀和内容丰富的屈折语系,可以衍生出大量不同的词汇。

As an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, the Greek language features the longest and most documented history. It is spoken mainly across Greece and Cyprus. Along its history, its syllabic structure has remained constant. It has a mixed syllable structure, allowing for relatively complex combinations of sounds. In addition, Greek possesses an extensive set of productive derivational affixes and a rich inflectional system.

#1 汉语(Chinese)

汉语是汉藏语系的一个分支,全世界以汉语为母语的人数超过了10亿。汉语的口语和文字之间的关系十分复杂。单从汉字的书写形式来看,无法辨别它如何发音。汉语的声调系统也十分令人头疼,因为现代标准汉语有四个声调,有许多同音异形异义词,只是因为声调不同,意义就不一样,在书面上就写成4个不同的字。退一步讲,哪怕声调相同,也不能认为就是相同的汉字,只有通过具体的语境和确切的词语才能区分。

Chinese forms one of the branches of the Sino-Tibetan language family and over one billion people can name it as their native language. The relationship between the spoken and written Chinese language is rather complex. Its written form has no clues as to how it is actually pronounced. The tone system also is a pain because there are many homophones in Chinese only distinguishable by the four tones. Even this is often not enough unless the actual context and exact phrase are identified.(China.org.cn)



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