用户名: 密码: 验证码:    注册 | 忘记密码?
首页|听力资源|每日听力|网络电台|在线词典|听力论坛|下载频道|部落家园|在线背单词|双语阅读|在线听写|普特网校
您的位置:主页 > 每日焦点 > 社会 >

科普贴:如何应对滑坡与泥石流?

2015-11-16    来源:普特编辑部    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

Landslides and Mudslides

泥石流是指在山区或者其他沟谷深壑,地形险峻的地区,因为暴雨暴雪或其他自然灾害引发的山体滑坡并携带有大量泥沙以及石块的特殊洪流。泥石流具有突然性以及流速快,流量大,物质容量大和破坏力强等特点。发生泥石流常常会冲毁公路铁路等交通设施甚至村镇等,造成巨大损失。那么,在灾难面前,我们能做些什么来保护自己?

What landslides and debris flows are
什么是滑坡与泥石流

Landslides occur when masses of rock, earth, or debris move down a slope. Debris flows, also known as mudslides, are a common type of fast-moving landslide that tends to flow in channels.
当大量的岩石,泥土或者瓦砾沿斜坡下滑时就形成了滑坡。泥石流(debris flows,通常也叫mudslides)是一种能够在沟谷深壑中快速流动的滑坡体。

 
泥石流

What causes landslides and debris flows
什么引起了滑坡与泥石流

Landslides are caused by disturbances in the natural stability of a slope. They can accompany heavy rains or follow droughts, earthquakes, or volcanic eruptions. Mudslides develop when water rapidly accumulates in the ground and results in a surge of water-saturated rock, earth, and debris. Mudslides usually start on steep slopes and can be activated by natural disasters. Areas where wildfires or human modification of the land have destroyed vegetation on slopes are particularly vulnerable to landslides during and after heavy rains.
滑坡是由于山坡的自然平衡被打破形成的。它们可能同时伴随有大雨或后续的旱灾,地震或火山喷发。当雨水迅速累积在土地上并且产生了大量被水浸透的岩石,泥土与碎屑时,泥石流就形成了。泥石流通常最先发生在陡峭的山坡上,自然灾害也能导致泥石流的爆发。因为森林大火或者人类改造活动而造成当地山坡上植被遭到严重破坏的地区在遭遇大雨或大雨后最容易发生山体滑坡。
 

Health threats from landslides and debris flows
滑坡与泥石流带来的健康威胁

In the United States, landslides and debris flows result in 25 to 50 deaths each year. The health hazards associated with landslides and mudflows include:
在美国,每年有25-50人死于滑坡与泥石流灾害。这些与滑坡,泥石流相关的健康危害包括:

•Rapidly moving water and debris that can lead to trauma;

•快速流动的水与碎屑可以导致创伤;

•Broken electrical, water, gas, and sewage lines that can result in injury or illness; and

•破损的电,水,气,污水管道能够导致受伤或患病;并且

•Disrupted roadways and railways that can endanger motorists and disrupt transport and access to health care.

•受阻的道路和铁路会危及驾驶员的安全,中断运输以及获得医疗服务的途径 

What areas are at risk
危险的区域

Some areas are more likely to experience landslides or mudflows, including:
某些区域更有可能遭遇滑坡与泥石流灾害,它们包括:

•Areas where wildfires or human modification of the land have destroyed vegetation;

•因为森林大火或人为活动使得植被遭到严重破坏的地区;

•Areas where landslides have occurred before;

•曾经发生过泥石流灾害的地区;

•Steep slopes and areas at the bottom of slopes or canyons;

•陡峭的斜坡以及处于斜坡或峡谷底部的地区;

•Slopes that have been altered for construction of buildings and roads;

•那些被改造用于修建房屋或道路的斜坡;

•Channels along a stream or river; and

•临溪或河的山谷;以及

•Areas where surface runoff is directed.

•地表径流汇集的地区。

What you can do to protect yourself 
如何保护自己

Before intense storms and rainfall
强烈的风暴和降雨前

Assume that steep slopes and areas burned by wildfires are vulnerable to landslides and debris flows.
假设陡峭的山坡以及被森林大火烧毁的地区容易爆发滑坡及泥石流灾害。

•Learn whether landslides or debris flows have occurred previously in your area by contacting local authorities, a county geologist or the county planning department, state geological surveys or departments of natural resources, or university departments of geology.

•通过联系当地的权威部门,或县地质学家,或县规划部门,国家地质调查机构,自然资源部门或大学的地质系了解你所在的地区之前是否发生过山体滑坡或者泥石流。

•Contact local authorities about emergency and evacuation plans.

•联系当地的权威部门了解紧急撤离计划。

•Develop emergency and evacuation plans for your family and business.

•为你的家庭以及公司制定紧急撤离计划。

•Develop an emergency communication plan in case family members are separated.

•制定当家庭成员走散后的紧急联系计划。

•If you live in an area vulnerable to landslides, consider leaving it.

•如果你生活在滑坡高危区,考虑搬家吧。

During intense storms and rainfall 
强烈的风暴和降雨过程中

•Listen to the radio or watch TV for warnings about intense rainfall or for information and instructions from local officials.

•通过听收音机或者看电视获得关于强降雨的警告或信息以及当地政府的指示。

•Be aware of any sudden increase or decrease in water level on a stream or creek that might indicate debris flow upstream. A trickle of flowing mud may precede a larger flow.

•密切关注可能用于指示来自上游泥石流情况的河流或小溪水位的突然上升或下降。很小的一股泥石流可能会先于更大的流量。

•Look for tilted trees, telephone poles, fences, or walls, and for new holes or bare spots on hillsides.

•寻找倾斜的树木,电线杆,围墙,或墙壁,和新洞或山坡裸露点。

•Listen for rumbling sounds that might indicate an approaching landslide or mudflow.

听见隆隆的声音可能预示着新一次即将来临的滑坡或泥石流。

•Be alert when driving. Roads may become blocked or closed due to collapsed pavement or debris.

•驾驶时保持警觉。由于路面坍塌或碎片,道路可能被封锁或截断。

•If landslide or debris flow danger is imminent, quickly move away from the path of the slide. Getting out of the path of a debris flow is your best protection. Move to the nearest high ground in a direction away from the path. If rocks and debris are approaching, run for the nearest shelter and take cover (if possible, under a desk, table, or other piece of sturdy furniture).

•如果滑坡或泥石流危险迫在眉睫,迅速离开有滑落体的道路。逃离泥石流的路径是你的最佳保护方式。立即朝某个方向逃到远离泥石流路径的最近的高地上。如果岩石与碎屑在逼近,跑到最近的避难处并藏起来(如果可能的话,躲在课桌,饭桌或其他坚固的家具下。)

After a landslide or debris flow
滑坡与泥石流结束后

•Stay away from the site. Flooding or additional slides may occur after a landslide or mudflow.

•远离事发地点。滑坡或泥石流结束后可能会有洪水或其他的碎屑。

•Check for injured or trapped people near the affected area, if it is possible to do so without entering the path of the landslide or mudflow.

•如果不必进入滑坡或泥石流路径, 在受影响区域找寻伤者或者被困人员。

•Listen to the radio or TV for emergency information.

•听收音机或看电视获取紧急信息。

•Report broken utility lines to the appropriate authorities.

•向有关当局报告损坏的公共事业线。

•Consult a geotechnical expert (a registered professional engineer with soils engineering expertise) for advice on reducing additional landslide problems and risks. Local authorities should be able to tell you how to contact a geotechnical expert.

•向岩土工程专家(持有土壤工程专家证的注册专家工程师)咨询关于减少额外滑坡的问题与风险的建议。地方当局应该能告诉你如何联系岩土工程专家。



顶一下
(45)
95.7%
踩一下
(2)
4.3%
手机上普特 m.putclub.com 手机上普特
[责任编辑:]
------分隔线----------------------------
发表评论 查看所有评论
请自觉遵守互联网政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
用户名: 密码: 验证码:
  • 推荐文章
  • 资料下载
  • 讲座录音
普特英语手机网站
用手机浏览器输入m.putclub.com进入普特手机网站学习
查看更多手机学习APP>>