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有关马航失联的几点疑问

2014-03-27    来源:镜报    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

How did flight MH370 end up in the Indian Ocean? Eight questions that still need answers

The families of the 239 passengers have been left devastated - but will they ever know the truth about what happened?

Almost three weeks after it seemingly disappeared without a trace, there have now been four satellite sightings of objects in the Indian Ocean that could be linked to missing Malaysia Airlines flight MH370.

Using the technology from UK firm Inmarsat, it has been concluded the plane crashed somewhere in the southern Indian Ocean, west of Perth in Australia, with Australian, Chinese and French satellites all spotting objects within a broad search area.

Then today, it was announced that a possible "debris field", measuring 400 square kilometres and containing 122 objects, had been seen close to the others.

Malaysia's transport minister described the discovery as "the most credible lead we have" and, if proved to be linked to MH370, could finally bring closure for the families of the 227 passengers and 12 crew desperately waiting for news of their loved ones.

Follow live updates on the search here.

Their devastation will no doubt be immeasurable.

But what might make it harder, is that this conclusion doesn't bring us any closer to finding out what happened to cause the crash.

How did a passenger jet disappear from all communication channels and fly thousands of miles off course before crashing into a remote part of the ocean without anyone realising?

Here we look at the 8 key questions that still need to be answered:

1. Where did the plane crash?

Often investigators know where a plane crashed, even if they cannot immediately find debris.

It may take several years before the key parts of the plane is discovered - including the crucial black box.

Calculations from UK firm Inmarsat have pinpointed the last-known location of the plane to an area of the southern Indian Ocean, but that does not give us the crash site.

Added to that is the fact the sea around those parts is up to 23,000ft deep and currents are likely to have caused wreckage to drift a long way from the original crash site in the past two weeks.

The objects discovered so far are spread across hundreds of kilometres, meaning that even if they are from MH370, we may not know exactly where it came down.

On the plus side, even one single piece of wreckage may be enough for investigators to determine whether the plane exploded or crashed, for example.


Aircrew look out of a window during an assignment over the Southern Indian Ocean to search for possible debris from flight MH370

2. Will the black box ever be found?

The most important piece of evidence to find is flight MH370's black box.

The piece of equipment - which is in fact usually orange - is around 12 inches long and designed to survive virtually any impact.

It records all the data from the plane and without it, we might never know what happened.

But search teams are now racing against time to find it, as the locator beacon battery will only last around 30 days.

Of course, it may be possible to find it without that locator, but it could potentially be much harder.

When Air France flight 447 disappeared near Brazil, it was a further two years after the first wreckage was found before the black box was recovered.

Malaysia's transport minster said today they would be using "deep sea" search technology in the next phase of the search.

3. Why did none of the passengers communicate before the plane crashed?

Angry family members have repeatedly questioned Malaysian authorities about why it has taken so long to find out where the plane ended up.

How did a plane disappear from all communication channels and fly around seven hours in the opposite direction and no one realised?

If passengers had known they were in trouble, surely they would have tried to make calls or send texts?

Experts have said that flying above 10,000ft and at such speed means no one on board would get a phone signal.

But others have suggested the plane could have been as low as 5,000ft at one stage.

4. Did passengers even know there was something wrong?

Is it possible the passengers didn't realise they were in trouble?

One of the more dramatic theories is that if intervention by the pilot is blamed for this crash, he could of knocked out the rest of the plane by de-pressurising the cabin while he wore an oxygen mask.

Or they may have simply been oblivious to the direction they were flying in.

At 1am in the morning, many of them would have been asleep, and the flight tracker on the passengers' individual screens could also have been disabled.

5. How did no one notice the plane had gone so far off course?

Even if all the passengers were either incapacitated, or unaware something was wrong, how did the plane avoid detection by other radars?

Last week, investigators said MH370's last-known location was to the west of Malaysia.

It is then believed to have flown thousands of miles along a 'southern corridor', deep into the Indian Ocean.

Why was it not picked up in the air space from Malaysia towards the southern Indian Ocean?

6. Were the captain and/or his co-pilot involved?

One of the other few conclusions we have from the Malaysian government, is that they believe the change in flight path was down to "deliberate action" by someone on the plane.

MH370 changed course at least twice from its scheduled route - first to fly west back towards Malaysia and then north west into one of two air lanes used by commercial planes.

Malaysian PM Razak said on March 15: "We can say with a high degree of certainty that the aircraft communications addressing and reporting system was disabled just before it reached the east coast of peninsular Malaysia.

"Shortly afterwards the aircraft's transponder was switched off.

"From this point onwards, the Royal Malaysian Air Force primary radar showed an aircraft believed to be MH370 did indeed turn back. It then flew in a westerly direction back over peninsular Malaysia before turning north west.

"These movements are consistent with deliberate action by someone on the plane."

So the prospect of a hijacking by Captain Zaharie Ahmed Shah, his co-pilot Fariq Hamid or someone else on the plane cannot be completely ruled out.

The fact that all communications were turned off, and the distance the plane travelled, points to someone with piloting experience having been involved.

7. Or could it have been a hijack by a passenger?

If it wasn't one of the pilots, was it someone else?

As mentioned, it had previously been thought it would need to be someone with piloting experience, but some experts think it is possible control of the plane could have been taken by force - either forcing their way through the cockpit door, or someone being invited into the flight deck only to threaten the pilots.

Investigators say terrorism or a mechanical malfunction such as a fire have note been ruled out.

8. Did MH370 crash into the sea after running out of fuel?

It's possible the after flying thousands of miles off course - whether by accident or design - the plane may have crashed into the sea after running out of fuel.

Malaysian authorities have previously said it was only carrying enough to take it on its scheduled mileage.

But whether the plane would have "plunged" or "glided" is also up for debate.

Aviation experts told the BBC that would depend on whether the aircraft was still being flown by a pilot. If so, it could have glided. But if there was no one flying the plane, it could have plunged into the water.

相关介绍:

据英国《镜报》3月24日报道,在马航失联的第17天,人们最终通过英国Inmarsat公司的卫星数据分析得知飞机坠落在澳大利亚帕斯港以西的南印度洋。

这一灾难带来的损失是不可计量的,但是对我们来说更难以接受的是,我们无法通过这个结论来推测出坠机是如何发生的。《镜报》对此提出了五点疑问。

疑问一:我们还没有得到任何确认的飞机残骸,那么我们又怎么知道飞机是坠落的呢?

通常调查者不需要通过飞机残骸来确认飞机坠机地点。而要找到包括黑匣子在内的飞机重要部件,则可能需要几年时间。

Inmarsat公司的最新数据将飞机最后的观测点锁定在了南印度洋的一片海域。而这一海域的水深有的可达23000英尺(约7010米),而且在过去的两周内,残骸可能随着海浪飘浮,远离最初的坠机地点。而对我们有利的一点是,调查人员只需要一片飞机残骸就可以断定某架飞机到底是坠毁还是爆炸。

疑问二:黑匣子能不能找到?

有关失联马航飞机的最有力证据就是机上的黑匣子。黑匣子是橘黄色的,有12英尺长,可以承受几乎任何外界冲击力。

它记录下了飞机的所有数据。没有它,我们可能永远都不知道发生了什么。现在搜救队正在争分夺秒地试图找到它,因为它定位光束的电池只能持续30天左右。

当然人们在没有定位光束的情况下也能找到它,但是那会加大搜索的难度。当法航447航班在巴西附近消失的时候,人们在找到第一块飞机残骸的两年后才发现了黑匣子。

疑问三:为什么机上的乘客在坠机过程中没有任何联系?

愤怒的乘客家属会想:为什么这么长时间才确定飞机终结的区域?为什么任何渠道都联系不到飞机,而且在向反方向飞行了7个小时后还没有人意识到?

如果乘客们在得知他们遇到了麻烦后,怎么可能不打电话或发消息呢?

专家称,高速飞行在10000英尺的高空便意味着没有人的手机会有信号。但也有报道称,飞机在一段时间内飞行高度是5000英尺,乘客们有没有可能不知道他们陷入困境了呢?

有一种较为戏剧化的猜测认为,如果飞行员对这次坠机有责任,那么他有可能使机舱瞬间失压,而自己带上氧气面罩。

疑问四:飞机偏离航线了这么远,怎么就没有人注意到呢?

即便是所有乘客都无力回应,或是没有意识到航线出现了问题,但是飞机如何躲过雷达的监测呢?

上周,调查者称马航飞机的最后锁定地点是在马来西亚西部。根据燃油量,它被推测出可能沿着北部或南部“空中走廊”飞行数千英里,而南部的航线通常被认作更为可能的航线。大部分的海空搜救力量兵分两路进行搜救。排除北部航线的一个原因是,很显然飞机不可能飞过这么多国家而不被发现。北部航线意味着要飞过众多重兵把守的国家,例如印度、中国和巴基斯坦。

即便如此,那么马来西亚到南印度洋的这段航空领域呢?这里当然不可能完全没有雷达监测。

疑问五:机长或者副机长是否是嫌疑人?

从马来西亚官方消息可以得出的一点结论是:有人在飞机上蓄意改变了航线。MH370航班偏离了既定航线至少两次,一次是向西飞往马来西亚,然后沿着其中一条商用航线向西北飞行。

马来西亚总理纳吉布称,马来西亚政府可以相当肯定飞机通信的应答系统在到达马来西亚半岛的东部港湾前就被切断了。人们的注意力集中在了机长扎哈里、副机长哈米德或机上的其他人员身上,因为他们很有可能劫持了飞机。

有消息称机长的妻子将接受美国联邦调查局的质询。切断通信设备意味着一些有着飞行经验的人参与了坠机事件。

调查人员称恐怖主义或是起火等机械故障还未被排除。

坠机这一结论对机上人员的亲朋好友而言是巨大的打击,然而MH370飞机上究竟发生了什么,迄今为止我们仍无从知晓。



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