用户名: 密码: 验证码:    注册 | 忘记密码?
首页|听力资源|每日听力|网络电台|在线词典|听力论坛|下载频道|部落家园|在线背单词|双语阅读|在线听写|普特网校
您的位置:主页 > 每日焦点 > 社会 >

美研究称“女飓风”易使人麻痹酿惨祸

2014-06-04    来源:新华网    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

Hurricanes with female names more deadly than male-named storms: study

一项针对美国飓风历史开展的研究显示,以女性名字命名的飓风可能比以男性名字冠名的飓风造成更多人员死亡。科研人员说,其原因可能是有些人认为“女飓风”没有“男飓风”那么可怕,因而麻痹大意,采取的防御措施较少。

美国伊利诺伊大学的一个研究小组2日在美国《国家科学院学报》上报告说,他们对1950年至2012年间美国的90多场飓风导致的死亡人数进行比较分析。不过,1957年的“奥德丽”飓风和2005年的“卡特里娜”飓风被排除在外,因为这两场飓风强度极大,造成的死亡人数远高于普通飓风。

研究人员发现,在破坏性较大的47场飓风中,“女飓风”平均造成45人死亡,而“男飓风”平均造成23人死亡。总体而言,飓风的名字越女性化,造成的死亡人数越多。

为验证他们的理论,研究人员又进行了6项测试,每项测试的参加人数从100人到346人不等。结果也表明,人们倾向认为“女飓风”没那么危险、强度较低,听到“女飓风”来袭后遵守自愿疏散指令的积极性也较低。

研究报告的作者沙伦·沙维特教授说:“对于一场飓风的强度,有些人似乎会根据对男女的认知来作出判断。这使得有女性名字的飓风,尤其是十分女性化名字的飓风如‘辛迪’、‘贝拉’,听起来比较温和,没那么猛烈。”她认为,这不一定意味着对女性的性别歧视,也有可能是人们认为女性更温和,不像男性那样有攻击性。

研究人员介绍说,美国最初用女性名字给飓风命名。上世纪70年代,考虑到性别平等问题,男性名字和女性名字才被用来交替命名飓风。但上述新研究表明,这种命名方式可能会产生“意料之外、潜在致命的后果”,因此或许该考虑新的命名方式。

美国国家飓风研究中心拒绝对这一研究发表评论,但指出人们应把关注重点放在飓风灾害本身,而不管它们是什么名字。也有人认为这一研究很重要,但要据此改变飓风的命名方式为时尚早。

Hurricanes with feminine names are likely to cause more deaths than hurricanes with masculine names, according to an analysis of more than six decades of hurricane death rates in the United States.

The study, published Monday in the U.S. journal Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, said the reason is very simple because a storm with a feminine name is seen as less foreboding than one with a more masculine name.

As a result, people in the path of these severe storms may take fewer protective measures, leaving them more vulnerable to harm, said the study by researchers of the University of Illinois.

"The problem is that a hurricane's name has nothing to do with its severity ... (it is) assigned arbitrarily, based on a predetermined list of alternating male and female names," said lead author Kiju Jung, a doctoral student in marketing in Illinois. "If people in the path of a severe storm are judging the risk based on the storm's name, then this is potentially very dangerous. "

Jung and colleagues examined actual hurricane fatalities for all storms that made landfalls in the United States from 1950 to 2012, excluding Hurricane Katrina (2005) and Hurricane Audrey ( 1957) because they were much deadlier than the typical storm.

They found that for highly damaging storms, the more feminine the storm's name is, the more people it killed. The analysis suggested that changing a severe hurricane's name from the masculine "Charley" to the feminine "Eloise" could nearly triple its death toll.

"In judging the intensity of a storm, people appear to be applying their beliefs about how men and women behave," said Sharon Shavitt, a professor of marketing at Illinois and a co- author of the report. "This makes a female-named hurricane, especially one with a very feminine name such as Belle or Cindy, seem gentler and less violent."

In a follow-up set of experiments, Jung and his colleagues examined how the gender of names directly affected people's judgments about storms. They found that people who were asked to imagine being in the path of "Hurricane Alexandra" (or "Christina" or "Victoria") rated the storm as less risky and intense compared to those asked to imagine being in the path of "Hurricane Alexander" (or "Christopher" or "Victor").

"This is a tremendously important finding. Proof positive that our culturally grounded associations steer our steps," said Hazel Rose Markus, a professor in behavioral sciences at Stanford University, who was not involved in the research.

Hurricanes kill more than 200 people in the United States each year, and severe hurricanes are capable of producing casualties in the thousands, according to the researchers.

They were previously given only female names in the United States but an alternating male-female naming system was adopted in the late 1970s because of increased societal awareness of sexism, the researchers said.

The findings, however, indicated an unfortunate and unintended consequence of the gendered naming of hurricanes, which has important implications for policymakers, meteorologists, the news media and the public regarding hurricane communication and preparedness, they said.

The researchers said this research is the first to demonstrate that gender stereotypes can have deadly consequences, although the negative effect of gender stereotypes is well-known in hiring decisions and other evaluations of women and men.(新华网)



顶一下
(0)
0%
踩一下
(0)
0%
手机上普特 m.putclub.com 手机上普特
[责任编辑:floater]
------分隔线----------------------------
发表评论 查看所有评论
请自觉遵守互联网政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
用户名: 密码: 验证码:
  • 推荐文章
  • 资料下载
  • 讲座录音
普特英语手机网站
用手机浏览器输入m.putclub.com进入普特手机网站学习
查看更多手机学习APP>>