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调查显示:世界杯看现场多为白人富人

2014-07-01    来源:chinadaily    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

Poll: White, rich fill Brazil World Cup stadiums


昨日公布的一项调查显示,就像全国观众在电视机前所看到的一样,买球票来场边观战的,绝大多数是白人和富人。

A poll published Sunday on the wealth and race of fans who attended a World Cup match in Brazil illustrated what any TV viewer in the nation has seen: Those attending games are overwhelmingly white and rich.

That's particularly striking in Brazil, with its highly mixed population that has more blacks than any country with the exception of Nigeria. More than half of Brazil's population self-identified themselves as black or of mixed-race in the 2010 census.

A Datafolha polling group survey published in the Folha de S. Paulo newspaper showed that at Saturday's Brazil versus Chile match, 67 percent of attendees classified themselves as white and 90 percent came from Brazil's top two economic classes, which represent about 15 percent of the country's population.
Similar trends have been seen at other Cup matches, though no polls were carried out previously.

The Datafolha poll was based on interviews with 693 fans at the Mineirao stadium in Belo Horizonte and had a statistical margin of error of 4 percentage points.

"Sure, there are only whites in the stadium. It comes down to money," said Ana Beatriz Ferreira, a 27-year-old parking attendant in Rio de Janeiro, who is black. "Nobody I know could find affordable tickets."

That's become a common refrain in Brazil - where the billions spent to build new or upgrade existing football stadiums both raised public ire about how the money was spent and has already caused ticket prices for Brazilian national soccer league matches to rise sharply. Some fans complain that's turned what were once affordable, raucous stadium experiences in Brazil into more costly and less spontaneous visits to storied stadiums like Rio's Maracana.

Ferreira added that while the entire Brazilian population has suffered during preparations for the World Cup, mostly because of big construction projects that have snarled traffic and extended already long commutes for the poor who live on the outskirts of cities, she feels like only the rich are reaping the benefits of the real World Cup experience.

"All I got was an extra hour on the bus to work, but I can't get a seat at the stadium," she said as she directed cars toward a mall's parking garage in Rio's wealthy southern zone.

Face-value prices for the Brazil versus Chile match officially ranged from $200 to $25 for Brazilians, the cheapest tickets making up roughly 5 percent of those sold. They were only available for students, senior citizens or poor people who participate in a government welfare program.

The prices are tough for ordinary Brazilians to afford. The minimum wage in the country is $330 a month, just about what Ferreira said she earns.
In an emailed statement, FIFA said that during group stage matches, it sold a total of 143,364 of the cheapest tickets, which amounted to roughly 3,000 such tickets available per match.


Those quickly sold out, locking out the vast majority of fans in soccer-mad Brazil.

Marcos Carvalho, an 18-year-old Brazilian fan who was hanging out near the Estadio Nacional in Brasilia before Brazil played Cameroon earlier this week, said that he "didn't even try getting tickets, they were too expensive."

"There was no way we could afford them," he said. "We'll just watch the match at home, it's all we can do. We are seeing everyone going to the stadium, everyone happy, but we won't be going."

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这一现象值得注意。巴西是个多种族国家,黑人占总人口比例位居世界第二,仅低于尼日利亚。在2010年的人口普查中,超过一半的巴西人认为自己是黑人或混血儿。

这份刊登在圣保罗报上的调查结果显示,在周六巴西和智利的比赛中,67%的现场观众称自己是白人,而90%的观众来自巴西两大顶尖经济阶层,约占全国人口的15%。
在其他杯赛中,尽管没有做调查,但同样也呈现出类似趋势。

圣保罗报的民意调查是基于在贝洛奥里藏特(Belo Horizonte)的米内朗球场( Mineirao)对693名球迷进行的采访,统计误差为4%左右。

今年27岁的黑人安娜(Ana Beatriz Ferreira)是里约的一名看车员,她说:“门票那么贵,当然只有白人才买得起,进去看球怎么可能轮到我?”

巴西政府动用数十亿资金建立新球场或扩建现有球场已触发众怒,并导致票价飞涨,这是路人皆知的事情。对此,一些球迷抱怨,曾经负担得起的现场体验变得更加昂贵,想要去诸如马拉卡纳等传奇球馆的热情也变淡了。

安娜还补充道,在巴西筹办世界杯期间,巴西人民却在遭罪。由于大型建设项目造成交通拥挤,耽误了居住在城市郊区穷人的上下班时间,她认为只有富人才会在世界杯倍感享受。

安娜上班的地方位于富人区的一家购物中心的车库,她抱怨道:“我去上班的路上要多花费一小时,但我却得不到一个现场看球的机会。“
巴西对智利比赛的正式票价范围在200美元到25美元之间。最便宜的门票大约占5%的销售额。这些门票只为学生、老年人和政府福利计划的穷人提供。
安娜的工资也就是巴西的最低月薪,仅330美元。因此门票对普通老百姓来说实在过于昂贵。
在一份电邮声明中,国际足联表示,在小组赛中,三等票总计售出143364张,相当于每场比赛就卖出了3000张。

门票很快销售一空,只是大多却不是落到铁杆球迷的手中。

马科斯卡瓦略是一名18岁的巴西球迷,本周早些时候,在巴西利亚国家体育馆闲逛的他表示:“我们甚至压根就没想过买票这事。门票太贵了,我们根本买不起,能做的也就是在家看看球了。我们看着去那些现场观战兴高采烈的人们,但我们自己却去不了,这真令人难过。”


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