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英语新闻:英国女子因共用修甲器感染艾滋病毒

2014-11-17    来源:chinadaily    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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英语新闻:英国女子因共用修甲器感染艾滋病毒 

Woman Catches HIV after Having Her Nails Done Using Shared Manicure Equipment

英语新闻:

A 22-year-old woman was diagnosed with HIV after having her nails done using shared manicure equipment.

Doctors say the case, detailed in a medical journal, has revealed a new form of transmission for the virus.

However the researchers warned that transmission through shared manicure equipment is a 'very rare event' and the risks of infection from new sources are still very low.

When diagnosed, the woman was found to have advanced HIV, according to the report in the journal AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses.

But she had none of the usual risk factors for acquiring the virus, which is most commonly caught by having sex without a condom.

It can also be passed on by sharing infected needles and other injecting equipment, and from an HIV-positive mother to her child during pregnancy, birth and breastfeeding.

However, the woman did report having shared manicure instruments years before with a cousin who was later found to be HIV-positive.

Blood analysis suggested the woman contracted the virus around ten years ago.


Further genetic analysis of the viruses from both patients suggested it came from a common ancestor, indicating the possibility HIV was transmitted through the manicure instruments.

Dr Brian Foley, of the HIV Sequence Database at the Los Alamos National Laboratory, said the case should not make people scared of contact with people with the virus, as the risk of infection is very low.

He said: 'HIV is not transmitted by casual contact, such as sharing eating utensils, or drinking from the same water glass.

'This transmission of HIV by shared manicure equipment is a very rare event that should serve not to make people fear HIV or contact with HIV-infected people.'

However, the case could promote caution around sharing items which may contain blood, he added.

He said: 'It should make people aware that sharing any utensils with possible blood-blood contact, such as needles used for drugs, tattoos, or acupuncture can result in transmission of viruses such as hepatitis C (HCV) and HIV.

'In addition, there are other common viruses and bacteria that can also be spread by sharing equipment without proper disinfection between users.'

HIV is transmitted from one person to another through bodily fluids including blood, semen, rectal fluids, vaginal fluids and breast milk.

It must enter directly into a person's bloodstream through an injection with a needle or syringe, or come in contact with damaged tissue, or a mucous membrane.

Mucous membranes can be found inside the mouth, the vagina, the opening of the penis, and the rectum.

Dr Michael Brady, Medical Director at Terrence Higgins Trust, echoed that this is a rare case.

He said: 'This is a highly unusual case. It is often very difficult to be certain as to the source of an HIV infection – especially one that happened over a decade ago – and it is hard to imagine how HIV could be caught from manicure equipment.

'In the UK the vast majority of HIV infections are passed on through unprotected sex. I don’t think this single case need change our simple message that the best ways to prevent HIV infection are to use condoms and test regularly for the virus'.

manicure: n.修指甲

transmission: n.播送;传送;(电台或电视)信息; 传动装置

retroviruses: 逆转录病毒

hepatitis: n.肝炎

syringe: n.注射器,注射筒; 灌肠器; 注油筒; 洗涤器

mucous: adj.黏液的,黏液覆盖的

membrane: n.(动物或植物体内的)薄膜; 隔膜; (可起防水、防风等作用的)膜状物

(Chinadaily)


英国一名年仅22岁的女性因与他人共用修指甲器而被诊断出感染上艾滋病毒。

医生表示,这一在医学杂志上详细介绍的案例,揭示了病毒传播的新形式。
 
然而,研究人员提醒说,这种通过共用修指甲器而传染HIV的情况是非常罕见的,而且因新途径而感染的风险机率也很小。
 
根据该杂志的艾滋病研究和人类反转录病毒(AIDS Research and Human Retroviruses)的报告显示,当该女子确诊时,她已处于艾滋病晚期了。
 
这名女性并没有感染艾滋病的常见高危因素。最常见的感染艾滋病毒的情况是不使用避孕套的性交。
 
艾滋病毒也会通过共用病毒感染的针头或其他的注射设备,以及通过HIV阳性的母亲在其怀孕,分娩,哺乳期间传染给她的孩子。
 
然而,这名女子几年前与她的表亲共用了修指甲器,而后来她的表亲被检测出呈HIV阳性。
 
血液分析表明该女子大概在十年前已染上艾滋病病毒。
 
从两位患者的进一步的病毒基因分析来看,病毒是同一个来源,这暗示了HIV是通过修指甲器传播的可能性。
 
就职于洛斯阿拉莫斯国家实验室(Los Alamos National Laboratory),研究HIV序列数据库(the HIV Sequence Database)的布莱恩·弗利(Brian Foley)博士表示,此案例不应使人们恐惧与患有艾滋病毒的人进行接触,因为感染的几率很小。
 
他说:“艾滋病不会通过日常接触传播,如共用餐具,或用同一个杯子喝水。”
 
“共用指甲修剪器而传播艾滋病是非常罕见的事情,因此不应该使人们惧怕HIV或者害怕与感染艾滋病的病人进行接触。”
 
然而,他补充说道,通过这件事,当他们共享可能含血液的物品时,人们变得更加谨慎。
 
他说:“应该让人们知道共用任何含血液接触的器具,如用于药物注射,刺青的针头,或针灸都可能导致丙型肝炎病毒(HCV)和艾滋病病毒的传播。
 
“此外,还有一些其他的常见病毒和细菌也能够通过未经消毒的器具进行传播。”
 
艾滋病病毒可通过体液包括血液,精液,直肠液,阴道液和乳汁传播。
 
它通过针头或注射器注射直接进入人体血液之中,或与受损组织或粘膜进行接触而传播。
 
粘膜存在于口腔,阴道,阴茎口,和直肠内。
 
特伦斯·希金斯信托(Terrence Higgins Trust)的医务总监迈克尔·布雷迪(Michael Brady)博士也赞同说这是罕见的事例。
 
他说道:“这是极不寻常的事件。它往往非常难以确定是否为HIV感染的源头,尤其是其发生在十多年前,而且也难以想象HIV怎么会出现在修指甲器上。”
 
“在英国,大多数的艾滋病病毒是因无保护措施的性行为传播的。我认为我们不需要因为这个单一事件而改变我们预防艾滋病的最佳方式,即使用避孕套和定期检测艾滋病毒。”


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