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调查:贫穷会影响两岁孩子的智力

2014-12-08    来源:英语点津    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

调查:贫穷会影响两岁孩子的智力

Poverty affects the intelligence of children as young as two, a study has found - and its impact increases as the child ages.
英国一项研究发现,贫穷会影响年仅两岁儿童的智力,且影响力会随年龄增长而加强。
 
Deprived young children were found to have IQ scores six points lower, on average, than children from wealthier families.
贫困家庭儿童的IQ(智力商数)比富裕家庭儿童平均低六分。
 
And the gap got wider throughout childhood, with the early difference tripling by the time the children reached adolescence.
随着儿童的年龄渐长,该差距会逐渐拉大,到步入青春期时穷人家的孩子与富人家孩子的智商差距会比幼儿期大两倍。

Scientists from Goldsmiths, University of London compared data on almost 15,000 children and their parents as part of the Twins Early Development Study (Teds).
来自伦敦金史密斯大学的科学家比较分析了近一万五千名儿童及其父母的资料,这些资料是孪生儿童早期发展研究(Teds)的部分数据。
 
The study is an on-going investigation socio-economic and genetic links to intelligence.
孪生儿童早期发展研究致力于智力与社会经济和遗传的关系研究,目前仍在进行。
 
Children were assessed nine times between the ages of two and 16, using a mixture of parent-administered, web and telephone-based tests.
研究综合了包括家长执行的测试和基于网络、电话的多种测试后,对年龄在两岁和十六岁间的儿童进行九次分析。
 
The results, published in the journal Intelligence, revealed that children from wealthier backgrounds with more opportunities scored higher in IQ tests at the age of two, and experienced greater IQ gains over time.
这项发表于《智力》(Intelligence)杂志的研究结果显示,两岁儿童的家庭经济背景越好,其智商获高分的几率越大,日后的智商增长也更大。
 
Dr Sophie von Stumm, from Goldsmiths, University of London, who led the study, said: 'We’ve known for some time that children from low socioeconomic status (SES) backgrounds perform on average worse on intelligence tests than children from higher SES backgrounds, but the developmental relationship between intelligence and SES had not been previously shown.
来自伦敦金史密斯大学的索菲·冯·斯蒂姆博士是该研究的负责人,他说:“目前我们的认知是:社会经济地位背景低的孩子,其智力测试结果普遍比家庭背景好的孩子差。但我们还未找到智力和社会经济地位的深层关系。
 
'Our research establishes that relationship, highlighting the link between SES and IQ.
“我们的研究确认了两者存在联系,突出了社会经济地位和智商二者的关系。
 
'We hope that our findings will drive future research into the specific mechanisms and factors that underpin the link between SES and IQ and thus, contribute to widening the IQ gap.'
“我们希望我们的发现能推动今后对加强这二者关系进而扩大智商鸿沟的特定机制和因素进行研究。”


Last year, a study by the University of Exeter revealed that children from poor backgrounds and one-parent families are more likely to suffer from attention deficit hyperactivity disorder, which could affect their ability to excel at school.
2013年,英国埃克赛特大学一项研究表明,贫困家庭和单亲家庭的儿童患小儿多动症(ADHD)的概率更高。小儿多动症又称注意缺陷多动障碍,这种疾病会影响儿童的学习表现。
 
Researchers found a link between social and economic status and childhood ADHD in Britain by analysing data from the Millennium Cohort Study - a database of more than 19,500 British children born between 2000 and 2002.
研究者通过分析来自“千禧队列研究”项目(Millennium Cohort Study)的数据,发现了社会经济地位与儿童小儿多动症之间的联系,该项目收集了出生于2000年至2002年期间超过一万九千五百名英国儿童的数据。

The study, published in the Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry, showed that there was a greater prevalence of ADHD among children from families living below the poverty line.
这项发表于《儿童心理学与精神疾病学》杂志的研究结果显示,生活在贫困线以下的儿童更容易患小儿多动症。
 
The researchers found the average family income for a household with a child affected by ADHD was £324 ($509) per week, compared to £391 ($614) for those with unaffected children.
研究发现,有一名小儿多动症儿童的家庭,其平均一周收入为324英镑(509美元),而普通家庭为391英镑(614美元)。
 
They also revealed that the chance of parents in social housing having a child with ADHD was roughly three times greater than for those who owned their own homes.
研究结果还显示,小儿多动症儿童的父母居住在社会福利房的几率是拥有私人住房的父母的三倍。
 
Mothers with no qualifications were more than twice as likely to have a child with ADHD as those with degrees, and lone parents were more likely to have a child with ADHD than households with two live-in parents.
无学位的母亲,其孩子患小儿多动症的几率比有学位的母亲的孩子高两倍以上;和单亲家长生活的孩子,其患小儿多动症的几率比和父母共同生活的孩子高。


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