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中国人是如何承受如此奇葩的房价的?

2016-07-27    来源:普特英语听力    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

你们有没有算过,单靠自己目前的工资,在你所在的城市买一套房,得需要工作多少年?

 

我算过,没算清。

 

倒不是因为被吓到了什么的,纯粹的,是因为我数学不好。

 

可是房子再贵,还是有那么多人前仆后继为了买房肝脑涂地,看一看歪果仁眼中咱们国人是如何买房的吧。

 

 

How People In China Afford Their Outrageously Expensive Homes

中国人到底怎么承受他们那高的离谱的房价的?


Wade Shepard , CONTRIBUTOR

 

Wade Shepard is the author of Ghost Cities of China. He is currently traveling through China, Central Asia, South Asia, the Caucasus, and Europe, doing research for a book on the New Silk Road.

(Wade Shepard是《中国鬼城》一文的作者,他目前在中国,中亚,南亚,高加索,欧洲等地旅行,为他关于新丝路的书做研究)

I was surprised when the owner of the run-down, 82 square meter apartment outside of the core downtown area of Xiamen that I once rented told me that he was selling it for nearly US$300,000. The apartment was in a well-worn 15 year old building — old in a country where housing only lasts for 25-30 years – and had grime covering the walls, tiles from the kitchen floor that were peeling up, water oozing up from the shower drain, and fixtures that were all mismatched . . . and dilapidated at that. Although at 22,000 RMB per square meter I couldn’t say that this place was priced abnormally high — this is just what people pay for homes in the east of China.

当一个房东把我曾经租过的他那厦门核心区外那破破烂烂的,只有82平米的房子卖成近30万美金的时候,我多少有点吃惊。这是一个15年房龄的老房子了,这个国家的房龄一般也就25-30年,墙上污迹斑斑,厨房地面的瓷砖已经脱落,冲澡的下水道不时有水渗出,固定装置也都配错了,荒废在那里,尽管是2万2一平米,我还是觉得这个价格奇高。但这个就是中国东部的人们为他们家园支付的价格。

 

An average 80 square meter apartment within Shanghai’s Inner Ring Road goes for upwards $886,000; while in the city’s hinterlands it sells for around US$200,000. In Beijing, the average cost of a home of this size is roughly US$310,000. This is all in a country were $5 can get you a bulging armful of food from the local market and $70 gets you a bunk on a train that’s going all the way across the country.

一个80平米的房子,在上海一环以内可以卖到88.6万美元。在内陆,大约是20万美元,这种大小的房子的均价大约是31万美元。而在这个国家,你花5美元可以在当地市场买到一大堆食品,花70美元你可以在火车上弄个卧位去任何地方。

 

According to the IMF ’s house price-to-wage ratio, China has seven of the world’s top ten most expensive cities for residential property. All through the country’s tier-one, tier-two, and even some tier-three cities, housing prices are severely out of proportion with the incomes of the people who live there.

根据国际货币基金组织的房价薪资比,中国是世界居住最贵的10大城市的7倍,不管是一线二线还是三线城市,与当地人的收入相比,房价已经高得远远不成比例了。

 

In Xiamen, a coastal city with a perpetually hot property market, $300,000 for an apartment is normal — even though the minimum wage there is hardly $200 per month and the average wage is around $1,000. Even for the city’s middle class residents, who make between $1,200 and $5,000 per month, the price seemed prohibitively high.

在厦门这个海边城市,房市一直火热,30万的房子非常正常,而那里的最低月薪只有200美元,平均月薪也只有1000美元,即便是中产阶级的居民,也只挣得到1200到5000每月,所以房价显得出奇的高。

 

However, the people of China can afford to buy these extremely expensive properties. In fact, 90% of families in the country own their home, giving China one of the highest home ownership rates in the world. What’s more is that 80% of these homes are owned outright, without mortgages or any other leans. On top of this, north of 20% of urban households own more than one home, according to Nomura . So with wages so out of whack with real estate prices, how can so many people afford to buy so many houses?

然而,生活在中国的人们却能够支付这种奇高的房价。事实上,90%的家庭拥有自己的房子,使得中国的房屋拥有率世界第一。并且,80的房子都是一把付清,没有按揭或者其他方式的贷款。另外,还有20%的拥有者中海油一套以上租房。与高房价相比如此卑微的薪水,这些人是怎么支付这么多房子的呢?

 

Before we can understand how people in China can afford to frolic in their country’s over-inflated housing market, we must look at where this market came from. Hardly 20 years ago China’s real estate market didn’t exist. It wasn’t until the mid-90s that a series of reforms allowed urban residents to own and sell real estate. People were then given the option to purchase their previously government-owned homes at extremely favorable rates, and most of them made the transition to being property owners. Now with a population provisioned with houses that they could sell at their discretion and the ability to buy homes of their choice, China’s real estate market was set to boom. By 2010, a little over a decade later, it would be the largest such market in the world.

在我们弄清楚人们如何支付这个国家过热的房地产市场以前,我们先来看看这个市场究竟是怎么来的。大约20年以前,中国的房地产市场并不存在,直到了90年代中期,一系列的改革政策才允许市民能够拥有和买卖房地产。

人们允许用非常实惠的价格去购买原先国有的住房,大多数人都因此成了房屋的主人。现在大量的人们可以根据自己的能力来选择购买自己想要的房子了,中国的房地产市场开始蓬勃,10多年以后,就成了世界上最大的市场。

 

When we talk about how people afford houses in China today, more often than not we’re not talking about individuals going out and buying property on their own — as is the general modus operandi in the West. No, we’re talking about entire familial and friend networks who financially assist each other in the pursuit of housing.

当我们谈到人们如何支付房款的时候,我们其实并不仅仅是谈论买房者个人,我们是在谈论资助了这个人的整个家庭和他们的朋友圈,这点和我们西方的做法不一样。

 

At the inner-circle of this social network is often the home buyer’s parents. When a young individual strikes out on their own, lands a decent job, and begins looking to pursue marriage, getting a house is often an essential part of the conversation. Owning a home is virtually a social necessity for an adult in China, and is often a major part of the criteria for evaluating a potential spouse. As parents tend to move into their children’s homes in old age, this truly is a multi-generational affair. So parents will often fork over a large portion of their savings to provision their children with an adequate house — oftentimes buying it years in advance. If parents are not financially able to buy their kids a house outright, they will generally help with the down payment, or at the very least provide access to their social network to borrow the required funds.

这个社交网络的最内层一般是父母。一个年轻人出来打拼,找了一个体面的工作,并开始要进入婚姻的时候,拥有一个房子,便成了必须。在中国社会,房子似乎是一个成年人必须拥有的,而且是考量一个潜在配偶的关键标准,老人一般喜欢在晚年搬去和子女同住,这个确实是几代人共同面临的问题,所以父母一般会把积蓄的很大一部分拿去给子女去买一个合适的房子,而且往往是几年前就开始着手。如果老人不能帮孩子一次性购买,他们一般也会帮他们付个首付,或者至少用他们的社会关系去接待这些需要的资金。

 

Take for example the case of Ye Qiuqin, a resident of Ordos Kangbashi who owns two houses across the country in Guangdong province, where she is originally from. Together with her fiancé, she makes roughly US$3,200 per month from running a cram school. For her first home she made a down payment of roughly US$20,000; of which $3,300 came from her parents, $10,000 came in the form of loans from her sister and friends, and the rest came from her savings.

就拿何秋琴的情况来说吧。她是康巴什鄂尔多斯的一个居民,她在家乡广东省拥有两套房子,她和她的未婚夫运营一个补习学校,每月能挣3200美元左右。她的第一套房子她首付了2万美元,其中3300美元来自父母,10000美元从兄弟姐妹亲戚朋友们那里借的,另外一些则是自己攒的。

 

To decrease the amount of volatility in China’s often hot property market, there are very strict rules as to how much money people can borrow from the bank for purchasing real estate. Although this slightly varies by city and wavers in response to current economic conditions, for their first home a buyer must lay down a 30% down payment, for the second it’s 60%, and for any property beyond this financing isn’t available. So for people to buy homes in this country they need to step up to the table with a large amount of cash in hand. In fact, 15% of all residential property in China is paid for in full upfront.

为了减少这些火热的房地产市场的不稳定性,在房地产购置贷款中,是有非常严格的限制规则的。尽管这也随着城市不同以及当前经济形势有关,但是第一套住房必须要支付30%的首付,第二套则要支付60%的首付,除此,贷款则不可得。所以在这个国家人们买房子会打折大量现金,15%的房子是直接当面全额支付的。

 

Why there is so much liquid cash available for these relatively large down payments is straight forward: the Chinese are some of the best savers in the world. In fact, with a savings rate that equates to 50% of its GDP, China has the third highest such rate in the world. As almost a cultural mandate, the Chinese stash away roughly 30% of their income, which is often called into use for such things as making a down payment on a home — which is the most important financial transaction that many Chinese will ever make.

相对于这么大额的首付,何来这么多流动资金?这个事情还是很容易解释的:因为中国人是这个世界上最好的储蓄者,接近GDP百分之五十左右的持续率让中国在世界上排第三,几乎是一种文化强迫,中国人把他们收入的三分之一藏起来,以便用于首付,这个几乎是很多中国人一生遇到的最大的财务交易。

 

Another way that Chinese home buyers are able to afford their down payments is via the country’s Housing Provident Fund. This fund began when the country started privatizing urban housing as way to help residents afford to buy their homes. Part of this fund included a government initiated savings plan where employees are given the option to invest a portion of their monthly earnings and have it matched by their employer to assist them with buying a house.

中国卖家的另一个支付办法是动用公积金,这项基金是国家在进行城市住房私有化开始时候帮助居民买房时候启动的。一般雇员从工资里取一部分钱,加上单位的相应部分,合起来构成了公积金存起来。

 

Once the down payment is accounted for, getting mortgages in China is a relatively straight forward affair, and the standards for qualifying are relatively low. For the most part, a borrower’s monthly salary must be at least twice the monthly repayment rate of the loan. Interest rates hover around 6%. On average, those who have these loans will devote between 30% and 50% of their monthly income towards paying them back.

一旦首付付了,贷款在中国就非常容易了,资质的审核非常粗糙。最主要的一点,就是借贷者的工资必须是还贷金额的两倍以上。利息率高达6%,一般来说,贷款者会用他们薪水的30%-50%去还贷。

 

While there is much talk in China and abroad about the increasing number of Chinese home buyers taking out mortgages, relative statistics should quell the hype. Just 18% of Chinese households have mortgages, compared with half of all home owners in the USA. China’s home mortgage-to-GDP ratio was just 15% in 2012, whereas in the USA it was a staggering 81.4%. Although monthly wages in China tend to be relative low, non-performance on mortgages is virtually unheard of — in 2013 the default rate was a mere 0.17%.

尽管在中国和海外都有人说中国买家开始越来越多的使用分期付款,但是相关数据却无情地驳斥了这种调调,只有18%的人使用分期付款,而美国则是半数。同样,中国的家庭抵押贷款和GDP比率是15%,而美国是令人那一置信的81.4%。尽管中国的月薪是如此之低,但是抵押贷款不履行确是少有耳闻,在2013年只有0.17%。

 

Although we must remember here that China’s banks are fully owned by the Communist Party, and social stability often takes precedence over the raw pursuit of profit, so their lending practices cannot be compared like-for-like against those of Western banks.

我们这里要记住,中国的银行是国有的,稳定性比逐利更重要,所以他们的借贷情况不能和西方银行做同样比较。

 

Part of China’s boldness when it comes to spending relatively large amounts of money on housing comes from the assumption that wages will continue rising. Nominal income growth in urban China has been going up at a 13% clip annually over the past decade, while annual per-capita disposable income has risen from $1,800 in 2006 to around $4,800 today.

中国人在购买房子时敢于动用如此大额现金的胆量来自于他们对于工资增长的信心,在中国城镇,过去十年间的工资年增长率名义上是13%,人均可支配收入也是从2006年的1800美元元涨到了目前的4800美元

 

This is to say that the Chinese are able to afford their homes, even though they are extremely expensive.

因此说,尽管房价极贵,中国人还是可以为他们的家园买单。

 

 

 

本文中作者提出了四个原因来说明中国人能够承受高房价的原因:

  1. 在旧城改造的时候很多市民解决了实际的居住问题

  2. 住房问题在中国一代家庭问题,而是几代问题,举家合力使得我们有能力

  3. 购房贷款率和公积金在逐步增加。

  4. 中国人对未来收入增长的信心。

 

请问您觉得主要是这几种原因中的哪一种?或者您有自己的观点,请告诉我们!



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