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内涝频发,城市的良心何在?

2016-08-01    来源:普特英语听力    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

近年来,城市内涝频频发生,几乎每逢暴雨,必有内涝。


北京

 


上海

 


广州

 


武汉

 


西安

 


桂林

 


凤凰

 

再多的例子我也不必再举,“下水道是城市的良心”,重温法国大文豪雨果的名言,再次向城市管理者敲响警钟。

城市内涝最大的病根在于城市建设开发过程中“重地表,轻地下”,衡量一座城市的品质,不能只看它外表是否高楼林立,交通发达,还要注重那些看不到的排水系统。

 

今天小编为大家介绍一下国外那些著名的排水系统,感受一下那些城市的“良心”。

 

PARIS

巴黎

 


Sewers have been draining wastewater in Paris since the beginning of the 13th Century, when the city's streets were paved and drains were built on orders from Philippe Auguste, the king of France from 1180 to 1223. Covered sewers were introduced during the reign of Napoléon Bonaparte, and today's network of more than 2,100 km (1,312 miles) of sewer tunnels was begun in 1850.

巴黎的下水道从13世纪初开始排放废水,当时这座城市的街道和排水沟在当时的法国国王Philippe Auguste(腓力二世,其统治时间为1180到1223年)开始修建。地下排水道是在拿破仑统治期间被引进到这里来,从1850年至今,巴黎的下水道网络总长达到2100千米(1312英里)。



The sandstone tunnels carry drainwater from the streets, sanitary sewers (now in separate pipes), mains for drinking water and the water used for streetcleaning, telecommunications cables, pneumatic tubes between post offices, and (or so one assumes) the occasional rat.

砂岩隧道主要是用来处理来自街道的废水,公共厕所的污水(现在分流不同的管道),其主要功能提供是饮用水和用来清洗街道的水。此外,隧道里还可以安置长途通信电缆,邮局之间的输气管,以及(据人假设)偶尔供老鼠通行。


The Paris Sewer Museum (French: Musée des Égouts de Paris), is dedicated to the sewer system of Paris. Tours of the sewage system have been popular since the 1800s and are currently conducted at the sewers. Visitors are able to walk upon raised walkways directly above the sewage itself. The entrance is near the Pont de l'Alma.

巴黎下水道博物馆是专门用来展示巴黎下水道系统的,对于下水道系统的参观从19世纪以来就特别受欢迎,最近才就此开始管制。游客们可以直接在下水道上面的阁道上行走。博物馆的入口在阿尔玛桥畔附近。



 

 

据报道,每年这里参观的有10万人次,巴黎下水道已经成为仅次埃菲尔、卢浮宫、凯旋门的旅游景点了。下水道里面无比宽敞,可以容纳很多行人,可以行走奔跑(就是电影里常常看到的那样),有通畅的换气系统。

 

顺便再说一下,巴黎有2.6万个下水道盖,6000多个地下蓄水池,1300多名专业维护工。


哪里是下水道,简直就是地下水利工程。

 

告诉大家很多人都不知道的一个tip,在巴黎,如果你不小心将钥匙或是贵重的戒指掉进了下水道,是完全可以根据地漏位置,把东西找回来的,下水道里也会标注街道和门牌号码,你所需要的就只是打个电话,而且这项服务还是免费的!


TOKYO

东京

 

 


Located on the outskirts of Tokyo, behind a small government building, underneath a soccer field and skateboard park, is an incredibly huge storm sewer system, built to protect the city’s 13 million residents from heavy rainfall and tropical storm floods. The official name of these long, underground tunnels is the “Metropolitan Area Outer Underground Discharge Channel”, but is more commonly called G-Cans. Built between 1992 and 2006, at the cost of $3 billion, this huge underground water management system comprises of 6.4 km of tunnels up to 50 meters underground connecting 5 giant silos, 65 meters tall and 32 meters wide, to one massive tank – the Temple. 

坐落于东京郊外一座小小的政府楼后面,在足球场和滑冰公园之下是一个巨大无比的雨水渠道系统,该系统是用来保护居民免于强降雨和热带风暴洪水的困扰。官方称这条巨长的地下管道为“城市郊区地下水管道”,但它更广为人知的名字是G-Cans。G-Cans修建于1992至2006年间,共花费30亿美元。这个巨大的地下水管理系统处于地下50米处,管道长6.4千米,连接着5个大水库,水库长65米宽32米,最后这些水都汇聚到一个巨大的蓄水池——宫殿。



The “Underground Temple” is the most impressive feature of G-Cans, that has been used as an atmospheric backdrop in various films and dramas. This giant metal reservoir measures 25.4 meters by 177 meters by 78 meters and is supported by 59 gargantuan pillars. Flood water from the city’s waterways are collected through the tunnels and into the silos. When these fill, water from the silos works its way through a series of tunnels and into the massive “Underground Temple”. From there, four turbines powered by jet engines, pump out 200 cubic meters or 53,000 gallons of water per second into the Edo River.

这座地下宫殿是G-Cans最令人印象深刻的地方了,这里经常被用作各种电影电视剧的背景。这座巨大的金属蓄水池高25.4米长177米宽78米,由59根大柱子支撑着。洪水从城市的排水沟通过管道汇集到这里进入水库。当水库注满后,里面的水就会通过一些管道汇聚到这个巨大的地下宫殿。在这里,有4个由喷射发动机带动的涡轮机,以每秒抽水200立方米或53000加仑的速度将水送入江户川。


According to Tokyo’s Central Disaster Management Council, if rainfall totaling 550 millimeters over three days hits Tokyo, causing the Arakawa river in Kita Ward to overflow its banks, then up to 97 subway stations would be flooded. That is however a once-in-200 years event, but one that G-Cans would help to drain away.

据东京自然灾害管理中心说,假设东京的降雨量在三天内达到55毫升,导致北京区的荒川河水漫过河岸,继而97号地铁站被淹。这种200年一遇的降水,G-Cans也能够排出。


The G-Cans project is an incredible engineering feat and strangely beautiful too, and therefore a fascinating tourist destination. When not flooded, tours are conducted twice a day, from Tuesday to Friday. Unfortunately, the tour is conducted only in Japanese. Make sure to bring an interpreter.

G-Cans是一次工程学上的壮举,而且它还特别美观,因此成为了特别吸引人的旅游景点。没有洪水的时候,从周二到周五,一天可以参观两次。不幸的是,参观是由日语进行的,最好带上翻译。


看完是不是想去日本下水道里面玩Temple Run啊,肯定很爽。虽然此temple非彼temple。

 


ROME

罗马

 


The Cloaca Maxima is one of the world's earliest sewage systems. Constructed in Ancient Rome in order to drain local marshes and remove the waste of one of the world's most populous cities, it carried effluent to the River Tiber, which ran beside the city.

马克西姆大下水道是世界上最早的排污系统。在古罗马时期建造,目的是为了排干当地的沼泽以及移除这座世界名城的垃圾。下水道把污水排入绕城的台伯河。


The name literally means Greatest Sewer. According to tradition it may have been initially constructed around 600 BC under the orders of the king of Rome, Tarquinius Priscus.

这名字照字面的意思是“大下水道”,据传是依照当时的罗马皇帝Tarquinius Priscus的命令,修建于公元前600年。


The Cloaca Maxima originally was built by the Etruscans as an open-air canal. Over time, the Romans covered over the canal and turned it into a sewer system for the city.

大下水道最初是由依楚利亚人修建的露头管道,随着时间的流逝,罗马人把它修建成了地下的排水系统。


There were many branches off of the main sewer, but all seem to be 'official' drains that would have served public toilets, bath-houses and other public buildings. Private residences in Rome, even of the rich, would have relied on some sort of cess-pit arrangement for sewage.

在下水道的主干道上还衍生出了很多分支,但这些下水道都是“官方的”,用来为公共厕所、公共澡堂以及公共建筑服务的。罗马的私人住宅,即便是那些有钱人的,也只能通过垃圾坑来排污。



 

话说,以前看过一篇文章,讲在古罗马的时候,那些负责维护下水道的人,都是划着船来观察的,划着船。。划。。着。。船。。

 


现在你们知道《肖申克的救赎》中安迪为什么会越狱成功了吧。

 

以前看外国片,里面的人老是一言不合就从下水道逃跑,要是在咱们大天朝的话,就是一只猪进去了,都不一定能活着出来。




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