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父母言行对孩子产生重大影响

2017-04-24    来源:爱语吧    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

研究表明,父母经常和孩子交流、陪孩子吃饭,对孩子会产生重大的影响,学业水平更高,人际关系更加健康。
The OECD has produced an international study of well-being and how young people feel about their lives.

经合组织已经发布了一项幸福和年轻人如何感知自己生活的国际研究。

The think tank’s education director Andreas Schleicher explains how much positive impact can come from simple changes such as parents taking time to talk to their children and eating a meal together.

智囊团教育总监安吉拉解释道,父母花时间与孩子们聊天,一起吃饭等简单的变化可以产生多少积极的影响。

Perhaps the most distressing threat to student well-being is bullying, and it can have serious consequences for the victim, the bully and bystanders.

也许,对学生幸福而言最痛苦的威胁就是欺侮,它对受害者,欺负者和旁观者可能会造成严重后果。

This international study shows how widespread this can be, across borders and cultures, in schools of many different kinds.

这项国际研究表明,欺侮是多么的普遍,跨越了边境和文化,存在于很多不同种类的学校里。

On average, across OECD countries, about 11% of teenagers reported they were frequently mocked, 7% were "left out of things", 8% were the subject of hurtful rumours and about 4% - that is still roughly one per class - were being hit or pushed around.

平均而言,在经合组织国家中,约有11%的青少年报告自己经常被嘲笑,其中7%被“遗弃”,8%受到谣言的伤害,约4%,即每班大概有一个学生被打或者被摆布。

A substantial number of young people feel isolated, humiliated, feel like an outsider at school or are physically assaulted.

大量的年轻人感到被孤立,羞辱,感觉是学校里的外人或者身体受到殴打。

This matters, because schools are not just places where students learn about academic subjects.

这很重要,因为学校不仅仅是学生学习学术科目的地方。

It’s one of the first places where children experience society and the behaviour of other people. It should be where young people learn about resilience and ambition.

这是儿童体验社会和其他人行为的第一个地方。这应该是年轻人了解适应性和野心的地方。

And whether positive or negative, this time in school will have a profound influence on these young people.

不管积极还是消极,在学校的时光将对这些年轻人产生深远的影响。

The evidence of countries such as Finland, the Netherlands and Switzerland shows that it is not a case of choosing between high academic standards and high levels of satisfaction with life - it is possible to have both.

芬兰,荷兰和瑞士等国家的证据表明,在高学术标准的高生活满意度之间选择是不可能的,有可能两者兼具。

It also shows there is no link between long hours of study and students’ sense of satisfaction. The frequency of tests, perhaps counter to expectations, also seems to be unrelated to anxiety about school.

证据也表明,长时间学习和学生满意度之间没有联系。测试频率可能有悖期望,似乎也和学校焦虑无关。

But what does seem to make a difference to well-being are the relationships between students, teachers and parents.

但是似乎对幸福产生影响的是学生,老师和父母之间的关系。

A negative relationship with teachers is a major threat to students’ sense of belonging in school. And conversely, "happy" schools are likely to report much more positive relations between staff and students.

和老师关系差是学生在学校归属感的主要威胁。相反。“快乐的”学校可能报告师生之间关系更积极。

On average across countries, students who reported that their teacher is willing to provide help and is interested in their learning are also about 1.3 times more likely to feel that they belong at school.

就各国平均水平而言,报告他们的老师愿意提供帮助并且对他们的学习感兴趣的学生可能感觉他们属于学校的概率是平均水平的1.3倍。

父母言行对孩子产生重大影响

Students who reported unfair treatment by teachers were 1.7 times more likely to report feeling isolated.

报告获得老师不公正待遇的学生可能报告感觉被孤立的几率是1.7倍。

This is important. Teenagers look for strong social ties and they value acceptance, care and support from others. Adolescents who feel they are part of a school community are more likely to perform better academically and be more motivated in school.

这个很重要。青少年寻求稳固的社会关系,重视他人的接受,关心和支持。觉得自己是学校社会一部分的青少年更有可能在学业上表现更好,更有动力。

There are also big differences between countries on these measures.

在这些措施上,国家间的差距也很大。

About three quarters of students feel they belong at school, and in some of the highest performing education systems, including Taiwan, Japan, the Netherlands, Vietnam, Finland, South Korea, Estonia and Singapore, that share is even higher.

约四分之三的学生觉得自己属于学校,在一些表现最好的教育系统里,包括台湾,日本,荷兰,越南,芬兰,韩国,爱沙尼亚和新加坡,这个比例甚至更高。

But in France it is just 41% - and there can be big differences in some countries in this sense of belonging for children from immigrant families.

但在法国,这一比例只有14%——在一些国家,来自移民家庭儿童的归属感大有不同。

While the frequency of tests might not affect student well-being, there does seem to be a more negative influence if tests are seen as "threatening".

尽管测试的频繁性可能不会影响学生的幸福,但是如果测试被认为是“威胁的”,似乎确实有更消极的影响。

This anxiety, even among well-prepared students, can also be linked to the relationships with teachers. If teachers are seen as supportive there is likely to be less stress.

即便是在准备充分的学生中,这种焦虑也可能和老师关系联系。如果老师被视为是支持的,这里的压力可能小一些。

Where students feel that teachers do not rate their chances of success fairly, there is even more worry, with 62% of students reporting high levels of exam tension.

如果学生觉得教师没有公平地评估成功的机会,那么还有更多的担心,62%的学生报告考试紧张水平高。

And in all countries, girls reported greater schoolwork-related anxiety than boys.

在所有的国家,女生报告的学校作业压力比男生多。

The fear of making mistakes on a test often disrupts the performance of top-performing girls who "choke under pressure".

在测试中犯错误的恐惧经常会扰乱压力下表现最好女孩的表现。

Another major factor in young people’s lives is the time spent online.

年轻人生活中的另一个主要因素是网上花费的时间。

Across OECD countries, 26% of students on average spend six hours per day online at weekends and 16% spend a similar time online on weekdays.

在经合国家中,26%的学生周末每天平均上网六个小时。16%的学生周中也花费同样的时间上网。

Extreme internet use, more than six hours per day, has a negative impact on students’ well-being.

过度使用网络(每天超过六个小时),会对学生幸福产生消极影响。

Last but not least, parents make a big difference.

最后,父母起很大的影响。

Students with high levels of life satisfaction were significantly more likely to have parents who regularly spent time talking to them.

生活满意度高的学生显然父母更有可能经常和他们交流。

Parents who sat around the table to eat their main meal with their children and talked about how they were getting on at school also made a difference.

坐在桌旁和孩子一起吃饭并且谈论他们在学校情况的父母也有影响。

"Spending time just talking" is the parental activity most frequently and most strongly associated with students’ life satisfaction.

“花时间交流”适合学生生活满意度联系最频繁,最强的父母活动。

It seems to matter for academic performance too.

这似乎也是学业表现的关键。

Students whose parents regularly talked to them were two-thirds of a school-year ahead in science, and even after accounting for social background, the advantage remains at one-third of a school year.

父母经常和他们交流的学生,科学学年成绩名列前三分之二,即便是社科背景,这一优势仍然在三分之一。

The results are similar for parents eating meals with children.

和孩子吃饭的父母结果是相同的。

The strength of this relationship is well beyond the impact of most school resources and school factors measured by Pisa tests.

这种关系的力量远远超出了比萨测试中大多数学校资源和学校因素的影响。

Even though this shows the powerful positive effect of parental interest, for many parents, spending time just talking to their child is a rare occurrence.

即使这显示了父母兴趣的强大积极效果,对许多父母来说,花时间与孩子说话是一件很少的事情。

Some parents find it difficult to participate in their children’s school life, maybe because of inflexible work schedules, lack of childcare or language barriers.

也许是因为灵活的工作时间,缺乏童年关怀和语言障碍,一些父母觉得很难参与他们孩子的学校生活。

But schools could do more to help parents overcome these barriers. If parents cannot leave work to attend school meetings, then perhaps parents could talk by phone or video.

但学校可以做更多的工作来帮助父母克服这些障碍。如果家长不能离开工作参加学校会议,那么家长可以通过电话或视频聊天。

There could also be support from government, such as incentives for employers to improve the work-life balance.

这也能获得政府的支持,比如激励员工提升工作和生活平衡。

Parents can also help children manage test anxiety by encouraging them to trust in their ability.

父母也能通过鼓励孩子相信自己的能力来帮助他们管理测试焦虑。

The challenges to the well-being students are many and there are no simple solutions. But the findings from this study show how teachers, schools and parents can make a real difference.

幸福学生的挑战很多,没有什么简单的解决方法,但是这项研究的发现展示出老师,学校和父母是如何产生真正影响的。

The challenges to the well-being students are many and there are no simple solutions. But the findings from this study show how teachers, schools and parents can make a real difference.

幸福学生的挑战很多,没有什么简单的解决方法,但是这项研究的发现展示出老师,学校和父母是如何产生真正影响的。


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