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名人故事(音频):凯撒·奥古斯都 Caesar Augustus

2016-03-28    来源:小e英语    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

Caesar Augustus

凯撒·奥古斯都
 
Many consider Augustus to be Rome's greatest emperor; his policies certainly extended the Empire's life span and initiated the celebrated Pax Romana or Pax Augusta. He was intelligent,decisive,and a shrewd politician, but he was not perhaps as charismatic as Julius Caesar, Nevertheless, his legacy proved more enduring.
许多人认为奥古斯都是罗马最伟大的皇帝。其政策无疑大大延长了罗马的寿命,并开启了罗马的盛世,即“罗马和平”或“奥古斯都的和平”。奥古斯都悟性很高,能断大事,是极狡猾的一名政治天才。他并不像尤利鸟斯·凯撒般光彩照人,但其留给后人的遗产却更持久。
 
The longevity of Augustus' reign and its legacy to the Roman world should not be overlooked as a key factor in its success. As Tacitus wrote, the younger generations alive in AD 14 had never known any form of government other than the Principate. Had Augustus died earlier (in 23 BC,for instance),  matters might have turned out differently. The attrition of the civil wars on the old Republican oligarchy and the longevity of Augustus, therefore, must be seen as major contributing factors in the transformation of the Roman state into a monarchy in these years.
奥古斯都的长久统治和他留给罗马的遗产是他成功的关键因素之一。正如Tacitus所写的那样,生活在公元14年的人,除了元首制外,不知道还有其他制度。要是他死得更早一些(比如公元前23年),事情可能就大不一样了。罗马共和国寡头政治时期的连年内战和奥古斯都的长寿,是罗马由共和制转为帝制的决定性因素。
 
Augustus' own experience, his patience, his tact, and his political acumen also played their parts. He directed the future of the Empire down many lasting paths, from the existence of a standing professional army stationed at or near the frontiers, to the dynastic principle so often employed in the imperial succession, to the embellishment of the capital at the emperor's expense. Augustus' ultimate legacy was the peace and prosperity the Empire enjoyed for the next two centuries under the system he initiated.
奥古斯都个人的城府、忍耐、手腕和他如日中天的政治声望也起了一定作用。其制定了在很多方面影响了以后的帝国政策:维持常备军并屯军于边,皇位的继承原则与方式,使用皇帝的经费建设首都。其最重要的遗产是建立了能让帝国在未来二百年维持和平与繁荣的制度。
 
His memory was enshrined in the political ethos of the Imperial age as a paradigm of the good emperor. Every emperor of Rome adopted his name, Caesar Augustus, which gradually lost its character as a name and eventually became a title. 
在帝国时代,他的行为被奉为明君典范。虽然后世罗马皇帝都袭用“凯撒·奥古斯都”的称号,但只有少数人真正配得上。


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