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名人故事(音频):奥利弗·克伦威尔 Oliver Cromwell

2016-03-31    来源:小e英语    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

Oliver Cromwell

奥利弗•克伦威尔
 
Born in Huntingdon in 1599 to a relatively poor squirearchal family, Cromwell found religious zeal as a Puritan while studying at Cambridge. His faith influenced his appearance: he was conservative in his clothing and austere in composure; his commanding voice and fervourproved a trademark in parliament. But it was in the conduct of war that he excelled.
1599年,克伦威尔出生于亨延顿一个比较穷困的地主家庭。在剑桥学习的时候,克伦威尔感受到了清教徒们的宗教。他的宗教信仰影响了他的外表:他衣着保守,简朴沉静;他那颇具权威性的声音和热情成为他在 议会的标志。但是战争的爆发才使他脱颖而出。
 
Following Charles’ failed attempt to arrest five MPs —among them Cromwell’s relative John Pym — civil war ensued. Cromwell acted after losing the battle at Edge Hill to a superior Royalist cavalry. By adding 60 horses to the Roundhead cause, the Battle of Marston Moor became a Roundhead victory. The final Cavalier defeat came at Naseby in 1645 and Cromwell had a major part to play in the negotiations that followed. He was, however, accused by all sides of conspiracy.
在查理一世试图逮捕5名下院议员的行动失敗之 后,战争接着就发生了,这5个人当中有一个就是克伦威尔的亲戚John Pym。在与高傲自大的保皇党派骑士们 在艾吉希尔的战役失利后,克伦威尔开始了他的行动。 通过给圆颅党议会派分子多送的60匹战马,圆颅党分 子获得了 1644年马斯顿荒原战役的胜利。保皇党1645 年最终在纳斯比彻底失敗,克伦威尔在其后的谈判中扮 演了主要的角色,起到重要作用。但是,他却受到协议 各方的指责。

Cromwell’s stature was confirmed at Preston when the New Model Army triumphed under his command. Thus his controversial career began. After the execution of Charles in 1649,he ordered the subjugation of Ireland, massacring civilians, and the remaining population was constrained by the Act of Settlement in 1653. Scotland was invaded and the nobility forced to submit. Cromwell muzzled the press and defeated the rebels.
克伦威尔的声望在普瑞斯顿战役中得到确立,当时 在他的指挥下,新模范军队取得了胜利。他从而开始了 自己颇具争议的政治生涯。1649年处决查理以后,他下 令征服爱尔兰,大肆屠杀平民,并在1653年通过颁发 《安置令》对当地剩余的人口进行管制。入侵苏格兰, 贵族阶级被迫顺从。克伦威尔还钳制新闻言论,并打敗 了叛乱。
 
In response Cromwell further asserted his power and established the Instrument of Government, awarding himself the office of Lord Protector supported by a single-chamber parliament. At the same time, his expensive army and failed trade wars with the Dutch proved expensive. Despite himself Cromwell had re-established the monarchy in all but name and returned England to the unhappy days of Charles I,s reign. Even so, his benevolent despotism was acceptable to a weary nation and went uncontested.
作为回应,克伦威尔进一步维护自己的权力和力量,并颁布了政府文书,自封护国主。同时,他的军队 和与荷兰人之间的失败的贸易战也花费甚巨。克伦威尔还重新建立独裁统治,又使英国回到了查理一世统治时 期的不幸时光。尽管如此,他这种仁慈的专制仍然被疲乏的民众所接受,并淡有进行任何反抗。

Cromwell’s death in September 1658 was the only close to this particular chapter. 
直到克伦威尔1658年9月去世,这一特殊的篇章才得以结束。


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