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英语名篇名段背诵精华--历史的作用(音频+文本)

2016-01-04    来源:小E    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

16.历史的作用

There are two ways of thinking of history. There is, first, history regarded as a way of look-ing at other things, really the temporal aspect of anything, from the universe to this nib when I am writing. Everything has its history. There is the history of the universe, if only we knew it-and we know something of it, if we do not know much. Nor is the contrast so great, when you come to think of it, between the universe and this pen-nib. A mere pen-nib has quite a considerable history. There is, to begin with, what has been written with it, and that might be something quite important. After all it was probably only one quill-pen or a couple that wrote Hamlet. Whatever has been written with the pen-nib is part of its history. In addition to that there is the history of its manufacture: this particular nib is a 'Relief' nib, No. 314, made by R. Esterbrook and Co. in England, who supply the Midland Bank with pen-nibs, from whom I got it—a gift, I may say, but behind this nib there is the whole process of manufacture. In fact a pen nib implies of universe, and the history of it implies its history. We may regard this way of looking at it—history as the time-aspect of all things: a pen-nib, the universe, the fiddled before me as I write, as a relative conception of history. There is, secondly, what we may call a substantive conception of history, what we usually mean by it, history proper as a subject of study in itself.
历史的思考方式有两种。其一,历史作为审视其它事物是一种,其实仅为所有事物暂时的面貌,从整个宇宙到有正在书写的笔端。每一样事物都有它的历史。宇宙也有它的历史,要是我们知道的话──虽然我们所知有限,总算知道一些;仔细想一下,宇宙和这笔端,其间的差异也不是那么大。但即使仅是这笔端也有一段历史。首先,透过它便有写出来的东西,而这些可能相当重要。毕竟莎剧(哈姆莱特)也只靠一支鹅毛笔或二支便完成了。通过笔端所写出来的变成了它自身的历史。此外,还有制造过程的历史:我这支笔尖其实是英国艾斯塔布禒克(Esterbrook)厂牌314号凸版型产品,专门供应米特兰银行用品,我是从那儿取得的───或许应该说是银行的赠品。在这笔尖的背后有一连串的制造过程……。故此,这笔尖蕴含了一个宇宙,而它的历史也蕴含了它自身的历史。我们可以把这种审视的方式看作──历史就是所有事务的时间之面貌:一支笔尖、宇宙、眼前我写作的领域……作为历史的相对观念。其二,则为我们称作实质观念的历史,就是我们通常所说的,历史本身作为一个研究的科目。
 
单词讲解
temporal adj.  暂时的
nib n. 笔尖
considerable adj. 相当的,重要的
Midland Bank:米特兰银行
the fiddled:不重要的事
substantive adj.实在的,本质的 


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