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大学英语四级阅读练习(10)

2010-10-11    来源:www.putclub.com    【      托福雅思口语高分过

One of the most interesting paradoxes in America today is that Harvard University, the oldest institution of higher learning in the United States, is now engaged in a serious debate about what a university should be, and whether it is measuring up.        
Like the Roman Catholic Church and other ancient institutions, it is asking - still in private rather than in public - whether its past assumptions about faculty, authority, admissions, courses of study, are really relevant to the problems of the 1990’s.      
『Should Harvard or any other university be an intellectual sanctuary, apart from the political and social revolution of the age, or should it be a laboratory for experimentation with these political and social revolutions; or even an engine of the revolution? 』①This is what is being discussed privately in the big clapboard houses of faculty members around the Harvard Yard.         
The issue was defined by Waiter Lippmann, a distinguished Harvard graduate, several years ago. “If the universities are to do their work,” he said, “they must be independent and they must be disinterested… They are places to which men can turn for judgements which are unbiased by partisanship and special interest. 『Obviously, the moment the universities fall under political control, or under the control of private interests, or the moment they themselves take a hand in politics and the leadership of government, their value as independent and disinterested sources of judgement is impaired.”』②       
This is part of the argument that is going on at Harvard today. Another part is the argument of the militant and even many moderate students: that a university is the keeper of our ideals and morals, and should not be “disinterested” but activist in bringing the nation’s ideals and actions together.        
Harvard’s men of today seem more troubled and less sure about personal, political and academic purpose than they did at the beginning. 『They are not even clear about how they should debate and resolve their problems, but they are struggling with them privately, and how they come out is bound to influence American university and political life in the 1990’s.』③    
  
1. The issues in the debate on Harvard’s goals are whether the universities should remain independent of our society and its problems, and whether they should .       
A. fight militarism      B. overcome the widespread drug dependency        
C. take an active part in solving society’s ills       
D. support our old and established institutions   
   
2. In regard to their goals and purposes in life, the author believes that Harvard men are becoming . 
 

 A. more sure about them          B. less sure about them        
C. more hopeful of reaching a satisfactory answer      
D. completely disillusioned about ever 
  
3. The word “paradox” in paragraph 1 is .       
A. a parenthetical expression         B. a difficult puzzle       
C. an abnormal condition              D. a self-contradiction 
      
4. The word “sanctuary”in paragraph 3 is.      
A. a holy place dedicated to a certain god         
B. a temple or nunnery of middle age        
C. a certain place you can hide in and avoid mishaps      
D. an academy for intelligent people     
 
5. In the author’s judgement, the ferment going on at Harvard .       
A. is a sad symbol of our general bewilderment      
B. will soon be over, because times are bound to change        
C. is of interest mostly to Harvard men and their friends        
D. will influence future life in America   
   
Vocabulary     

1.paradox n. 似非而是的论点;似非而可能是的隽语;自相矛盾的话        
2.sanctuary n. 避难所       
3.clapboard n. 隔板,墙板,桶板       
4.distinguished adj. 卓著的,著名的,高贵的       
5.partisanship n. 党派性,党派偏见     
6.disinterested adj. 无私的     
7.impair v. 削弱,伤害       
8.militant adj. 好战的,战斗性的        
9.be bound to 一定要……  
  
长难句解析

①【解析】此句由两个并列的句子组成,“apart from…”做第一个句子“sanctuary”的补语。       
【译文】哈佛或其它一些大学应当是一个智力的避难所,远离当今的政治和社会变革;还应当是政治和社会变革的一块实验基地,或者甚至是革命的一部发动机呢?  
  
②【解析】两个“the moment”引导的句子做此句的时间状语从句。    
【译文】显然,当大学处于政治和私有企业的控制下,或者他们自己从事政治和政府的领导时,他们作为独立和公正判断的价值观将会收到伤害。 
   
③【解析】这个长句由三个句子组成,“but”引导了一个转折句,“and”引导了一个并列句。be bound to“肯定会,必定”。  
【译文】他们甚至不清楚应当怎样讨论和解决他们的问题,但是他们每个人正在奋斗,并且哈佛大学议论的结果必定影响20世纪90年代美国的大学和政治生活。  
  
答案与详解 
       
【短文大意】本文主要讲述哈佛大学正面临的一个重要的争论,即一所大学应当是什么样的,现在的大学是否是符合标准的,哈佛大学应当远离政治和社会,还是作为政治和社会的一块实验田。
     
1.C细节题。文章第三段实际上已经告诉我们本文要讨论的议题。选项C提到的观点是“大学应该保持独立”这一论点的对立面,属议题范围之内。 
  
2.B细节题。根据文章末段,Harvard’s men of today seem more troubled and less sure about personal, political and academic purpose than they did at the beginning. 可知正确选项为B。
      
3.D词汇题。从第四段我们可以猜出paradox是“自相矛盾”的意思。因此选项D正确。
     
4.C词汇题。意为:“Sanctuary”就是你可躲起来避过灾祸的地方。在中世纪一般是某些教堂或者修道院可以充当躲避任何政府惩罚的避难所,所以A、B两项也是与它词义有一点关联的,D关系最小。
     
5.D观点题。根据文章末尾,and how they come out is bound to influence American university and political life in the 1990’s. 作者认为在哈佛的争论的结果一定会影响美国的大学和政治生活。本题中的ferment意为“骚动,纷扰”,指的就是文章所说的争论。因此D符合作者的观点。



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