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四级阅读做题技巧:四原则排除法

2014-04-03    来源:网络    【      托福雅思口语高分过

四级阅读排除法一: 排除与原文相关句态度相反的选项
态度相反原则,即选项所述主题与原文正好相反或态度不一致,可立即排除。

2010年6月的四级考试阅读理解题目中,有一道题困扰了很多考生--Passage 2 Q64: What does the author mean by "… you're just underlining his faults" (Line 4, Para. 3)?
原文相关句:If you tell your dim friend that he has the potential of an Einstein, you're just underlining his faults.
题目选项: A) You are not taking his mistakes seriously enough.

                 B) You are pointing out the errors he has committed.

             C) You are emphasizing the fact that his is not intelligent.

             D) You are trying to make him feel better about his faults.

这道题目很多同学会因为faults一词而误选了选项D)。我们严格应用排除法来做题目,则可避免这一错误。原文相关句主题 underline one's faults,意为"强调某人的错误",先来关注各选项动词:A) not take … seriously没有严肃认真的对待,与原文相反,排除;B)point out指出错误,保留;C) emphasize强调,保留;D) try to make sb. feel better让某人感觉更好,与强调错误这一主题相反,排除。在此基础上,再应用主题相关原则做排除,B)选项提及指出某人所犯的错误(errors),C)选项说强调他不聪明(not intelligent),原文表述he has the potential of an Einstein(有爱因斯坦先生的潜质),没有提到犯错误,因此正确答案为C)。

四级阅读排除法二:排除与原文相关句主题不一致的选项
主题一致性,是排除法的第一要义。很多题目,仅仅通过主题不一致原则就可以排除得出正确答案。

句子主题,通常体现在名词或动词上。因此审题和排除选项时,首先要关注句子中的核心名词和动词,找寻题目与选项的一致性。

例如上文提及的2011年12月Passage2 Q63:What does the author mean by saying 'money is known… to bring a relationship to its knees' (Line 1 Para.2)?

原文相关句:Since money is known to be one of the things most likely to bring a relationship to its knees, we should be grateful.
题目选项: A) Money is considered to be the root of all evils.

             B) Some people sacrifice their dignity for money.

            C) Few people can resist the temptation of money.

             D) Disputes over money may ruin a relationship.

原文相关句主题为money和relationship之间的关系。据此来考察各个选项:A) 提到money和evil(邪恶)之间的关系,主题不一致,排除。B) 提到人们的尊严(dignity)的问题,主题不一致,排除。C) 提到抵挡(resist)钱的诱惑(temptation),主题不一致,排除。只有D) 选项提到了money和relationship的关系,保留为正确答案。

难度稍大些的题目,可以多次叠加应用"主题相关"原则做排除。如2011年12月Passage2 Q65:What does Kim Stephenson believe?

本题目利用Kim Stephenson回原文找寻相关句,为第三段落首句:Kim Stephenson, an occupational psychologist, believes money is such a big deal because of what it symbolizes, which may be different things to men and women. 原文相关句可提取出如下主题:a big deal, symbolize, different things to men and women。

题目选项: A) Money is often a symbol of a person's status.

             B) Money means a great deal to both men and women.

             C) Men and women spend money on different things.

             D) Men and women view money in different ways.

通读选项发现,A)含有symbol,B)提到a great deal,C)和D)都提及了different things/ways。因此,必须利用选项中其他主题词做第二轮排除:A)选项提到person's status(社会地位),原文原句并未提及任何个人背景问题,排除;B)选项both men and women与原文所述different things to men and women不同,排除;C)提及spend money,原文未提到,排除。因此,最终答案为D)。D)选项中view money in different ways含义为"用不同的方式看待钱",原文句义为"钱对于男人和女人所代表的(symbolize)的东西是不同的"。可见,两句虽转换了描述方式,但基本含义是相同的。

四级阅读排除法三:排除用语过于极端或负面的选项
四级阅读文章来源多为学术性的报纸期刊,其语言的一大特征是客观性和严谨性,因此鲜少出现极端或过于负面信息的表达。如果题目选项中出现明显的极端选项,可以直接排除。例如上文提到的2011年12月Passage2 Q63中的A)、C)两个选项也可以利用极端原则直接排除:A)选项Money is considered to be the root of all evils.(钱是万恶之源),C)选项Few people can resist the temptation of money.(没人能抵挡得住钱的诱惑),都是过于极端和负面的信息。

再如2012年6月四级考试Passage 1 Q61:What can be inferred from the last paragraph? 本文依然讨论的是经济衰退给家庭关系带来的问题。

题目选项为: A) The economic recovery will see a higher divorce rate.

                 B) Few couple can stand the test of economic hardships.

                C) A stable family is the best protection against poverty.

                D) Money is the foundation of many a happy marriage.

精读选项发现,B) 几乎没有那个家庭可以经历经济困难的考验,过于极端和负面,排除;D) 钱才是很多幸福婚姻的基石,过于负面,与积极阳光的普世价值相左,排除;C) 稳定的家庭是抵御贫困的最好的保护,虽然该选项是正面信息,但是best一词的判断力度未免太过强烈。因此,初步分析,选项A) 似乎更加靠谱。而回归原文验证后发现,文章末段结尾句恰恰表达了选项A) 对应的含义:So it's only when the economy is healthy again that we'll begin to see just how many broken families have been created. 只有当经济复苏之后,我们才能够看出到底有多少家庭破裂了。选项A) 意为"经济的复苏将见证离婚率的上升"。二者为简单的同义改写。

四级阅读排除法四:注意结合文章主旨和主题做排除
在解答个别较困难的题目时,除了应用以上排除原则外,还可以结合全文主旨和主题来排除选项作答,有时可大大简化做题的难度。例如2011年6月四级考试Passage1 Q60:What does Alec Webley consider to be the "definition of integration"?

原文相关句:"One of the great things about freshman housing is that, with some exceptions, the process throws you together randomly," said Undergraduate Assembly chairman Alec Webley. "This is the definition of integration."

题目选项: A) Students of different races are required to share room.

             B) Interracial lodging is arranged by the school for freshmen.

             C) Lodging is assigned to students of different races without exception.

             D) The school randomly assigns roommates without regard to race.

首先,C)选项without exception与原文相关句表述"with some exceptions"正好相反,排除。在剩余三个选项中做判断时,可以参考全文主题。主题句通常在文章开头:Several recent studies have found that being randomly (随机地) assigned to a roommate of another race can lead to increased tolerance but also, to a greater likelihood (可能性) of conflict. 从开头句可看出,全文讨论的主题是"随机给不同种族的同学安排宿舍"的问题。再结合原文相关句中the process throws you together randomly,对于"随机"一词的重复印证,可以做出排除,选择答案D)。而其他两选项也可通过主题相关原则做排除:A)选项的be required(被要求共用宿舍),原句未提及;B)选项arranged by the school(由学校安排),原文也未明确提出安排宿舍的主体。



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