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英语四级阅读训练2

2014-04-09    来源:网络    【      托福雅思口语高分过

Psychologists take opposing views of how external rewards, from warm praise to old cash, affect motivation and creativity. Behaviorists, who study the relation between actions and, argue that rewards can improve performance at work and school. Some other researchers who study various aspects of mental life, maintain those rewards often destroy creativity byencouraging dependence on approval and gifts from others.

The latter view has gained many supporters, especially among educators. But the careful use of small monetary rewards sparks in grade-school children suggesting that properly presented inducements indeed aid inventiveness, according to a study in the June Journal Personality and Social Psychology.

“If they know they're working for a reward and can focus on a relatively challenging task, they show the most creativity,” says Robert Esenberger of the University of Delaware in Newark. “But it's easy to kill creativity by giving rewards for poor performance or creating too much anticipation for rewards.”

A teacher who continually draws attention to rewards or who hands out high grades for ordinary achievement ends up with uninspired students, Esenberger holds. As an example of the latter point, he notes growing efforts at major universities to tighten grading standards and restore falling grades.

In earlier grades, the use of so-called token economics, in which students handle challenging problems and receive performance-based points toward valued rewards, shows promise in raising effort and creativity, the Delaware psychologist claims.

1. Psychologists are divided with regard to their attitudes toward ____.
A) the choice between spiritual encouragement and monetary rewards
B) the appropriate amount of external rewards
C) the study of relationship between actions and
D) the effects of external rewards on students' performance

2. What is the view held by many educators concerning external rewards for students?
A) They approve of external rewards.
B) They don't think external rewards.
C) They have doubts about external rewards.
D) They believe external rewards can motivate small children, but not college students.

3. According to the result of the study mentioned in the passage, what should educators do to stimulate motivation and creativity?
A) Give rewards for performances which deserve them.
B) Always promise rewards.
C) Assign tasks which are not very challenging.
D) Be more lenient to students when mistakes are made.

4. It can be inferred from the passage that major universities are trying to tighten their grading standards because they believe ____.
A) rewarding poor performance may kill the creativity of students’
B) punishment is more effective than rewarding
C) failing uninspired students helps improve their overall academic standards
D) discouraging the students anticipation for easy rewards is matter of urgency

5.Which of the following facts about “token economics” is not correct?
A) Students are assigned challenging tasks.
B) Rewards are given for good performances.
C) Students are evaluated according to the effort they put into the task.
D) With token economics, students’ creativity can be enhanced.

【答案与解析】
1. D
心理学家认为外界的奖励对学生会有不同的影响。事实辨析题。根据文章第一句话“Psychologists take opposing views of how external re wards, from warm praise to old cash, affect motivation and creativity”可知,心理学家的分歧在于来自外界的奖励对学生的积极性和创造性究竟有什么影响,故选项D正确.

2. C
许多教育家对外界的奖励持怀疑态度。
文章第二段第一句话提到,后一种观点得到了许多教育工作者的支持,从第一段中可知,后一种观点是:奖励会促使学生对别人的赞许和馈赠产生依赖心理,因此奖励会破坏创造精神。由此可知,他们对奖励的正面作用持怀疑态度。故选项C正确。

3. A
根据文中的研究结果表明,教育家通过给予学生应得的奖励来提高他们的积极性和创造性。文章第三段指出,给予学生恰当的奖励,可使他们发挥更大的创造性,但如果对糟糕的表现也给予奖励,或让学生对奖励有太多的期许,反而会扼杀创造性。故选项A正确。

4. B
从文中可以得知,一些重点大学试图加强等级标准,因为他们相信惩罚比奖励更有效。事实辨析题。从文中第四段可知,许多大学之所以严格考试的评分标准,是因为“A teacher ... who hands out high grades for ordinary achievement ends up with uninspired students”。选项B 与此意相同。

5. C
根据学生的表现对他们作出评价。事实辨析题。根据最后一段的意思,在这种奖励制度下,要根据学生的表现对他们做出评价,而不仅仅是他们花费了多少精力来完成任务,故选项C正确。

【重点英语单词】  
appropriate ['pr甂瀀爀椀夀琂崀
adj. 适当的,相称的
vt. 拨出(

anticipation [æn.tisi'pei夂渂崀
n. 预期,预料

deserve [di'z:v]
vi. 应该得到
vt. 应受,值得

performance [p'f:m渂猀崀
n. 表演,表现; 履行,实行
n. 性

psychologist [sai'k氂夀搂鈀椂猀琀崀
n. 心理学家

urgency [':d夂渂猀椀崀
n. 紧急(的事)

monetary ['m渂夀.teri]
adj. 货币的,金融的

stimulate ['stimjuleit]
vt. 刺激,激励,鼓舞
vi. 起刺激

achievement ['t椂:vm渂琀崀
n. 成就,成绩,完成,达到

challenging ['tælind椂崁
adj. 大胆的(复杂的,有前途的,挑战的) n.



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