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2014年12月四级考试阅读部分答案解析(2)

2014-12-24    来源:未知    【      托福雅思口语高分过

Passage One:

题目:The Internet Doesn’ t Hurt People - People Do: ‘The New Digital Age’

整体评价:第一篇文章比第二篇文章难度略低。主要做题方法是根据关键词进行定位,而这个知识点是四级强化阅读课中反复提及的重点。前四题均是细节题,只需要根据关键词精确定位即可。而最后一题是推理题,需要综合归纳文中所提到的内容,难度较前四题略高。

文章:
The rise of the Internet has been one of the most transformative developments in human history, comparable in impact to the invention of the printing press and the telegraph. Over two billion people worldwide now have access to vastly more information than ever before, and can communicate with each other instantly, often using Web-connected mobile devices they carry everywhere. But the Internet’s tremendous impacts has only just begun.

“Mass adoption of the Internet is driving one of the most exciting social, cultural, and political transformations in history, and unlike earlier periods of change, this time the effects are fully global,” Schmidt and Cohen write in their new book. The New Digital Age.

Perhaps the most profound changes will come when the five billion people worldwide who currently lack Internet access get online. The authors do an excellent job of examining the implications of the Internet revolution for individuals, governments, and institutions like the news media. But if the book has one major shortcoming, it’s that authors don’t spend enough time applying a critical eye to the role of Internet businesses in these weeping changes.

In their book, the authors provide the most authoritative volume to date that describes - and more importantly predicts - how the Internet will shape our lives in the coming decades. They paint a picture of a world in which individuals, companies, institutions, and governments must deal with two realities, one physical, and one virtual.

At the core of the book is the idea that “technology is neutral, but people aren’t.” By using this concept as a starting point, the authors aim to move beyond the now familiar optimist vs. pessimist dichotomy(对立观点)that has characterized many recent debates about whether the rise of the Internet will ultimately be good or bad for society. In an interview with TIME earlier this week, Cohen said although he and his co-author are optimistic about many aspects of the Internet, they’re also realistic about the risks and dangers that lie ahead when the next five billion people come online, particularly with respect to personal privacy and state surveillance(监视).

In what way is the rise of the Internet similar to the invention of the printing press and the telegraph?
A It transforms human history.          C. It is adopted by all humanity.
B.It facilitates daily communication.     D.It revolutions people’s thinking.


正确选项:根据题文同序的原则和题中的关键“the rise of the Internet”和“the invention of the printing press and the telegraph”回到文中,定位到第一段的第一句。 The rise of the Internet has been one of the most transformative developments in human history, comparable in impact to the invention of the printing press and the telegraph.文中的comparable 是对similar to 的同义转述。第一句话是题干的同义改写,并且说明它们产生的影响是相同的,所以我们应该在文章的第二句来找一下它们产生的是什么影响。Over two billion people worldwide now have access to vastly more information than ever before, and can communicate with each other instantly, often using Web-connected mobile devices they carry everywhere. 根据第二句可知网络使得人们能获得更多信息,能进行及时的沟通,并且经常使用移动通信工具。可见网络的作用是使得人们的日常沟通更加顺畅。因此答案应选B.It facilitates daily communication.

错误选项:A It transforms human history. 它改变了人类的历史,而在文中的第一句只是说它是一种人类历史中充满变化的发展,而不是改变了人类的历史,范围过大。C  It is adopted by all humanity.被全人类所应用,all 过于绝对。D.It revolutions people’s thinking.没有提到变革了人们的思考方式。无中生有。
  
How do Schmidt and Cohen describe the effects of the Internet?
A They are immeasurable.               C They are unpredictable.
B They are worldwide.                  D They are contaminating


正确选项:根据人名Schmidt and Cohen定位到第二段,问题问的是两人对网络的影响的描述,所以应重点看他们说的引号内的那句话。“Mass adoption of the Internet is driving one of the most exciting social, cultural, and political transformations in history, and unlike earlier periods of change, this time the effects are fully global,”根据关键词effect,所以可以精确定位到这句话的后半句,this time the effect are fully global。所以可见网络的影响是越来越全球化的的。回到选项中,只有B选项中的worldwide 是对global 的同义改写。所以答案是B They are worldwide.

错误选项:A immeasurable 无可估量的。C unpredictable 难以预测的。D contaminating 污染的。

In what respect is the book The New Digital Age considered inadequate?
A  It fails to recognize the impact of the Internet technology.
B  It fails to look into the social implications of the Internet.
C  It lacks an objective evaluation of the role of Internet businesses.
D  It does not address the technical aspects of Internet communication.


正确选项:定位到第三段,重点去看书的不足。定位到第三句。But if the book has one major short-coming, it’s that the authors don’t spend enough time applying a critical eye to the role of Internet businesses in these sweeping changes.可知书的不足之处是作者没有时间以一种批判的眼光来看待电子商务所扮演的角色。因此,四个选项中唯一提到Internet business的只有C选项。C 它缺乏对电子商务扮演的角色的客观评估。所以正确答案是 C  It lacks an objective evaluation of the role of Internet businesses.
  
错误选项:
A 它不能认识到网络科技的作用。B 它不能深入调查网络产生的社会影响。
D 它不能解决网络交流的技术性问题 均是无中生有。

59.What will the future be like when everybody gets online?
A People will be living in two different realities.
B People will have equal access to information.
C People don’t have to travel to see the world.
D People don’t have to communicate face to face.


正确选项:重点根据关键词future来进行解题。定位到第四段的第二句。They paint a paint of a world in which individuals, companies, institutions, and governments must deal with two realities, one physical, and one virtual.They paint a paint of a world是题干中future的改写,所以后面提到的 deal with two realities, one physical, and one virtual.They paint a paint of a world就是未来会出现的场景。而选项中只有A提到了two different realities。所以正确答案A People will be living in two different realities.

错误选项:文中均无提及,无中生有。

What does the passage say about the authors of The New Digital Age?
A They leave many questions unanswered concerning the Internet.
B They are optimistic about the future of the Internet revolution.
C They have explored the unknown territories of the virtual world.
D They don’t take sides in analyzing the effects of the Internet.


正确选项:根据题文同序原则回到文中最后一段来找这本书的作者。定位到第二句话,By using this concept as a starting point, the authors aim to move beyond the now familiar optimist vs. pessimist dichotomy (对立观点)that has characterized many recent debates about whether the rise of the Internet will ultimately be good or bad for society.近期对于网络的兴起对社会来说最终是利还是弊的争论,大多是持乐观或悲观的对立观点,而本书的作者很好的绕开了这些对立的观点。第三句,In an interview with Time earlier this week ,Cohen said that although he and his co-author are certainly optimistic about many aspects of the Internet, they’re also realistic about the risks and dangers that lie ahead when the next five billion people come online, particularly with respect to personal privacy and state surveillance(监视).最后一句中,介绍作者不仅提到了网络的好处,也提到了网络存在的风险和危险。所以答案应该指出作者是持一种中立态度的。而四个选项中,只有D选项提到作者们don’t take sides,没有站在任何一边,符合原文。所以正确答案:D They don’t take sides in analyzing the effects of the Internet.

错误答案:A 他们留下很多关于网络的问题没有解答。无中生有。B 他们对网络变革的未来非常乐观。只有乐观过于片面。C 他们探索了虚拟世界中不为人知的领域,无中生有。

Passage Two

总体评价:这篇文章较第一篇难度略有提高,单词和长难句都有所增加。四级阅读强化班重点给大家讲解了在句子看不太懂的情况下如何把题做对,也就是抓中心话题的方法。希望同学们都能够运用在答题中。

In 1950, a young man would have found it much easier than it is today to get and keep a job in the auto industry. And in that year the average autoworker could meet monthly mortgage(抵押贷款)payments on an average home with just 13.4 percent of his take-home pay. Today a similar mortgage would claim more than twice that share of his monthly eamings.

Other members of the autoworker’s family, however might be less inclined to tried the present for the past. His retired parents would certainly have had less economic security back then. Through-out much of the 1960s,more than a quarter of men and women and women age 65 and older lived below the poverty level, compared to less than 10 percent in 2010.

In most stales, his wife could not have taken out a loan or a card in her own name. In 42 states, a homemaker had no legal claim on the earnings of her husband. And nowhere did a wife have legal protection against family violence.

Most black workers would not want to return to a time when, on average they earned 40 percent less than their white counterparts(职位相当的人),white racially restrictive agreements largely prevented them from buying into the suburban neighborhoods being built for white working -class families.

Today, new problems have emerged in the process of resolving old ones, but the solution is not to go back to the past. Some people may long for an era when divorce was still hard to come by. The spread of no -fault divorce has reduced the bargaining power of whichever spouse is more interested in continuing the relationship. And the breakup of such marriages has caused pain for many families.

The growing diversity of family life comes with new possibilities as well as new challenges. According to a recent poll, more than 80 percent of Americans believe that their current family is as close as the one in which they grew up, or closer. Finding ways to imaginary golden age.
  
61 What do we learn about American autoworkers in 1950?
A.They had less job security than they do today.
B.It was not too difficult for them to buy a house.
C.Their earnings were worth twice as much as today.
D.They were better off than workers in other industries.


正确答案:根据关键词“American autoworkers”和1950进行定位,定位到第一段的第一、二句,In 1950, a young man would have found it much easier than it is today to get and keep a job in the auto industry. And in that year the average autoworker could meet monthly mortgage(抵押贷款)payments on an average home with just 13.4 percent of his take-home pay. 第一句说明在1950,年轻人比现在容易在汽车行业找到并保持工作,而第二句说的是当时的房贷是工资的13.4%,综上两句说明在当时年轻人找工作和买房都是相对轻松的。提到工作和买房这两个话题的只有A和B,而只有B选项提到当时买房并不困难。所以正确答案:B.It was not too difficult for them to buy a house.

错误答案:A 和现在相比他们的工作较不稳定。而文中说的是当时比现在更稳固。与原文相反。C 他们赚的钱是现在的两倍。这是根据第一段最后一句进行干扰。Today a similar mortgage would claim more than twice that share of his monthly eamings.原文是指现在他们的住房贷款占工资的比例是1950年的两倍。D 他们比其他产业的要更好。没有提及和其他产业的比较。

62 What does the author about retired people today?
A.They invariably long to return to the golden past.
B.They do not depend so much on social welfare.
C.They feel more secure economically than in the past.
D.They are usually unwilling to live with their children.


正确答案: 根据关键词“retired people today”,定位到文章的第二段第二句:His retired parents would certainly have had less economic security back then. 以前他退休的父母对于经济没什么安全感。并且后面一句中提到1960s,65岁的老年人超过15%的生活在贫困线之下,而2010年只有10%以下,可见,现在的退休的老年人比当时在经济方面更加有安全感。如果看不懂句子,可以根据话题解题法,提到这个economic security话题的只有C ,可以直接选。正确答案:C.They feel more secure economically than in the past.

错误答案:A 他们想要回到过去的黄金时代。与原文相反。B 他们不太依赖于社会福利。无中生有。D 他们不愿意和他们的孩子一起住。无中生有。

63 Why couldn’t black workers buy a house in a white suburban neighborhood ?
A.They lacked the means of transportation.
B.They were subjected to racial inequality.
C.They were afraid to break the law.
D.They were too poor to afford it.


正确答案:根据关键词“black workers”,“ white suburban neighborhood” 回文定位,定位到第四段。重点寻找原因。重点定位到后半句,white racially restrictive agreements largely prevented them from buying into the suburban neighborhoods being built for white working -class families.主要说是白人的种族限制协议使得黑人工人不能买白人居住的郊区社区的房子。题中的couldn’t 对应于文中的prevent……from。所以正确答案是B.They were subjected to racial inequality.他们遭受了种族不平等。

错误答案:A.They lacked the means of transportation.他们缺乏交通工具。C.他们害怕违法。D他们太穷了买不起。文中均无提及,都属于无中生有。

64 What is the result of no-fault divorce ?
A.Divorce is easier to obtain.
B.Domestic violence is lessened.
C.It causes little pain to either side.
D.It contributes to social unrest.


正确答案:根据关键词“ no-fault divorce”进行定位到第五段第三句,The spread of no -fault divorce has reduced the bargaining power of whichever spouse is more interested in continuing the relationship. 无过错离婚的普及使得想要继续这段婚姻的一方无能为力。说明现在人们相较以前更容易离婚。而答案中提到这点的只有A,离婚越来越容易了。正确答案:A.Divorce is easier to obtain.

错误答案:B 家庭暴力减少了。无中生有。C 它没有造成了伤害,而第五段最后一句And the breakup of such marriages has caused pain for many families.明确说明它造成了伤害。D 它造成了社会的动荡。无中生有。

65. What does the author suggest society do?
A.Get prepared to face any new challenges.
B.Try to better the current social security.
C.Narrow the gap between blacks and whites.
D.Improve the lives of families with problems.


正确答案:定位到最后一段。The growing diversity of family life comes with new possibilities as well as new challenges. According to a recent poll, more than 80 percent of Americans believe that their current family is as close as the one in which they grew up, or closer.所以社会生活的不断的多元化带来了新的可能和新的挑战,通过最近的民意调查,超过80%的美国人相信他们的家庭生活和他们小时候的生活相近。结合前文提到的社会的各种问题,可以知道人们的生活仍然是有所提升的。而选项中提到家庭生活的只有D。正确答案:D.Improve the lives of families with problems.

错误答案:A 准备面对任何新的挑战。文中只是说带来了新的挑战,并没提及应对任何一个新的挑战,过于绝对。B 优化社会安全。无中生有。C 缩减白人和黑人之间的差距,无中生有。



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