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2014-07-18    来源:网络    【      托福雅思口语高分过

Divorce doesn't necessarily make adults happy. But toughing it out in an unhappy marriage until it turns around just might do, a new study says.

The research identified happy and unhappy spouses. culled (选出 ) from a national database. Of the unhappy partners who divorced. about half were happy five years later. But unhappy spouses who stuck it out often did better. About two-thirds were happy five years later. Study results contradict what seems to be common sense, says David Blankenhorn of the Institute for American Values, a think-tank on the family. The institute helped sponsor the research leam based at the University of Chicago. Findings will be presented in Arlington, Va.. at the "Smart Marriage" conference. sponsored by the Coalition for Marriage. Families and Couples Education.

The study looked at data on 5,232 married adults from the National Survey of Families and Households. It included .64.5 who were unhappy. The adults in the national sample were analyzed through 13 measures of psychological well being. Within the five years, 167 of the unhappy were divorced or separated and 478 stayed married.

Divorce didn't reduce symptoms of depression, raise self-esteem or increase sense of mastery compared with those who stayed married, the report says.

Results were controlled for factors including race, age, gender and income. Staying married did not tend to trap unhappy spouses in violent relationships. What helped the unhappy married turn things around? To supplement the formal study data, the research team asked professional firms to recruit focus groups totaling 55 adults who were "marriage survivors". All had moved from unhappy to happy marriages. These 55 once-discontented married felt their unions got better via one of three routes, the report says:

Marital endurance. "Wich time, job situations improved, children got older or better. or chronic ongoing problems got put into new perspective." Partners did not work on their marriages.

Marital work. Spouses actively worked "to solve problems, change behavior of improve communication".

Personal change. Partners found "alternative ways to improve their own happiness and build a good and happy life despite a mediocre marriage." In effect the unhappy partner changed.

【参考译文】
离婚不一定使成年人快乐,而一项新的研究认为忍受不快乐的婚姻直到它出现转机,可能使人快乐。

该研究从一个全国性的数据库中选出配偶,分为快乐型和不快乐型。在离婚的不快乐型伴侣中,约有半数的人5年后变得快乐了。[1]但坚持不离婚的不快乐型配偶往往情况更佳,5年后约有三分之二的人变得快乐了。家庭问题智囊机构美国价值观研究所的戴维·布兰肯霍说,研究结果与看似常理的观点不一致。该研究所协助为一个设在芝加哥大学的研究小组提供赞助。[2]研究结果将在弗吉尼亚州阿灵顿市召开的“智慧婚姻”会议上宣读,这次会议由婚姻、家庭、夫妻教育联盟赞助举办。

这项研究考察了从全国家庭和家务调查中选出的5232位已婚成人的资料,其中645人生活得不快乐。[3]人们对全国抽样的这些成年人进行了13项心理健康指标分析。5年中,过得不快乐的人中有l67人离婚或分居,478人维持婚姻。

研究报告指出,与维持婚姻的人相比,离婚的人并没有减轻他们的抑郁症状、提高自信,或增强自我把握的意识。研究结果针对种族、年龄、性别、收入等因素进行了调整。维持婚姻不一定必然使不快乐的夫妻陷入恶化的关系。是什么促使不快乐的婚姻出现转机呢?为补充正式的研究数据,研究小组请求专业公司征集了共55名“婚姻幸存者”组成重点研究小组。这些人都经历了从不快乐婚姻到快乐婚姻的过程。研究报告显示,这55名曾对婚姻不满的人觉得他们婚姻的改善得益于以下3种途径之一:

[5]婚姻尽显耐力。“随着时间流逝,就业状况好转,孩子们长大成人或更听话,可以从新的角度看待长期存在的问题了。”夫妻双方不曾着力去改善他们的婚姻。

婚姻建设。夫妻双方积极行动“以解决问题。改变自身行为举止或增进交流”。

个人变化。夫妻双方找到“其他途径来提升自身的快乐、创造美好快乐的生活,尽管他们的婚姻勉强凑合”。实际上,不快乐的配偶发生了变化。

【测试题】
1. According to David Blankenhorn. people commonly believe that________.
A) divorce is a better solution to an unhappy marriage than staying together
B) divorce is not necessarily the only solution to an unhappy marriage
C) keeping an unhappy marriage needs much courage and endurance
D) to end an unhappy marriage or not is a tough decision for the spouses

2. Which of the following is true about the research under discussion?
A) It was conducted by che Institute for the American Values headed by David Blankenhorn.
B) It was sponsored by the Coalition for Marriage, Families and Couples Education.
C) Its subjects were chosen from a national database based at the University of Chicago.
D) Its report will be included in the schedule of the "Smart Marriage"conference.

3. The 13 measures of psychological well-being are used to_______.
A) serve as the standards for choosing the subjects of the research
B) serve as the ways to help adults to get over their unhappy marriage
C) examine all the 5232 married adults
D) examine all the adults in the database

4. The author's attitude towards divorce may best be described as ________".
A) critical      B) impersonal      C) arbitrary       D) scornful

5. According to the report, chose unhappily-wedded may not survive their marriage by_______.
A) waiting for the living conditions to get improved
B) achieving children’s understanding
C) changing their own attitude towards mediocre marriages
D) working on their problems and strengthening communication



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