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暑假六级阅读训练11

2014-07-28    来源:网络    【      托福雅思口语高分过

Researchers who are unfamiliar with the cultural and ethnic groups they are studying must take extra precautions to shed any biases they bring with them from their own culture. For example, they must make sure they construct measures that are meaningful for each of the cultural or ethnic minority groups being studied.

In conducting research on cultural and ethnic minority issues, investigators distinguish between the emic approach and the etic approach. In the emic approach, the goal is to describe behavior in one culture or ethnic group in terms that are meaningful and important to the people in that culture or ethnic group,without regard to other cultures or ethnic groups. In the etic approach, the goal is to describe behavior so that generalizations can be made across cultures. If researchers construct a questionnaire in an emic fashion, their concern is only that the questions are meaningful to the particular culture or ethnic group beingstudied. If. however, the researchers construct a questionnaire in an etic fashion,they want to include questions that reflet concepts familiar to all cultures involved.

How might the emic and etic approaches be reflected in the study of family processes? In the emic approach, the researchers might choose to focus only on middle-class White families, without regard for whether the information obtained in the study can be generalized or is appropriate for ethnic minority groups. In a subsequent study. the researchers may decide to adopt an etic approach by studying not only middle-class White families, but also lower-income White families. Black American families, Spanish American families. and Asian American families. In studying ethnic minority families, the researchers would likely discover that the extended family is more frequently a, support system in ethnic minority families than in White American families. If so, the emic approach would reveal a different pattern of family interaction than would the etic approach, documenting that research with middle-class White families cannot always be generalized to all ethnic groups.

【参考译文】
[1]研究者如果对其研究的文化群体或种群不熟悉,那么,他们就要特别注意,不要带上来自其自身文化的任何偏见。比如,他们一定要确保他们所设计的研究方案对于他们所研究的每一个少数文化群体或者少数民族群体都是有意义的。

在从事对少数文化群体或者少数民族群体问题的研究过程中,调查研究人员会区分两种研究方法,即文化主位研究法和文化客位研究法。[2]/[3]文化主位研究法的目的是,用对于所描述的文化群体或种群的人民来说具有意义和价值的方式来描述某个文化群体或种群的行为,而不用顾及其他文化群体或种群。[4]文化客位研究法的目的则是通过描述某些行为,从而做出可以普遍适用于不同文化的推论。如果研究者用文化主位研究法设计一套调查问卷,他们关注的只是所提问题要对所研究的特定文化群体或种群有意义。然而,如果研究者用文化客位研究法设计一套调查问卷,他们希望采用的问题能反映出所有相关文化都熟悉的概念。

文化主位研究法和文化客位研究法在对家庭变化过程的研究中会怎样反映出来呢?在文化主位研究法中,研究者可能会选择只集中研究白人中产阶级家庭,而不管这种研究所得到的资料是否可以推广到少数种群,或者这样的资料对少数种群是否合适。在后续的研究中,研究者可能决定采用文化客位研究法,不仅研究白人中产阶级家庭,还要研究白低收入家庭、美国黑人家庭、美国西班牙裔家庭以及美国亚洲裔家庭。在少数种群家庭中,扩大家庭常常是一种支撑系统。如果是这样的话,文化主位研究法所提示的家庭成员的互动模式就会与文化客位研究法所提示的模式不一样,从而证明,对白人中产阶级家庭的研究结论并不总是可以普遍适用于所有的种族群体。

【测试题】
1. According to the First paragraph.researchers unfamiliar with the target cultures are inclined to________________.
A) be overcautious in constructing meaningful measures
B) view them from their own cultural perspective
C) guard against interference from their own culture
D) accept readily what is alien to their own culture

2. What does the author say about the emic approach and the etic approach'?
A) They have different research focuses in the study of ethnic issues.
B) The former is biased while the latter is objective.
C) The former concentrates on the study of culture while the latter on family issues.
D) They are both heavily dependent on questionnaires in conducting surveys.

3. Compared with the etic approach the emic approach is apparently more______________.
A) culturally interactive            B) culture-oriented
C) culturally biased                 D) culture-specific

4. The etic approach is concerned with________________.
A) the general characteristics of minority families
B) culture-related concepts of individual ethnic groups
C) features shared by various cultures or ethnic groups
D) the economic conditions of different types of families  

5. Which of the following js true of the ethnic minority families in the U.S. according to the passage'?
A) Their cultural patterns are usually more adaptable.
B) Their cultural concepts are difficult to comprehend.
C) They don't interact with each other so much as White families.
D) They have closer family ties than White families.
 



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