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暑假六级阅读训练16

2014-08-04    来源:网络    【      托福雅思口语高分过

To say that the child leams by imitation and that the way to teach is to set a good example oversimplifies. No child imitates every action he sees. Sometimes, the example the parent wants him to follow is ignored while he takes over contrary patterns from some other example. Therefore we must tum to a more subtle theory than "Monkey see. monkey do".

Look at it from the child's point of view.Here he is in a new situation,lacking a ready response. He is seeking a response which will gain certain ends.If he lacks a ready response for the situation, and cannot reason out what to do.he observes a model who seems able to get the right result. The child looks for an authority or expert who can show what to do.

There is a second element at work in this situation. The child may be able to attain his immediate goal only io find that his method brings criticism from people who observe him. When shouting across the house achieves his immediate end of delivering a message. be is told emphatically that such a racket (叫嚷) is unpleasant, that he should walk into the next room and say his say quietly. Thus. the desire to solve any objective situation is overlaid with the desire to solve it properly. One of the early things the child leams is that he gets more affection and approval when his parents like his response. Then other adults award some actions and criticize others. If one is to maintain the support of others and his own self-respect, he must adopt responses his social group approves.

In finding trial responses. the learner does not choose models at random. He imitates the person who seems a good person to be like. rather than a person whose social status he wished to avoid. If the pupil wants to be good violinist, he will observe and try to copy the techniques of capable players;while some other person may most influence his approach to books.

Admiration of one quality often leads us to admire a person as a whole. and he becomes an identifying figure. We use some people as models over a wide range of situations. imitating much that they do. We leam that they are dependable and rewarding models because imitating them leads to success.

【参考译文】
[1]断言孩子们通过模仿来学习。而教育的方式就是树立好的榜样,这是把问题过于简单化了。没有一个孩子是看到什么就模仿什么的。有时,他无视家长希望他效仿的榜样,反而向其他榜样学一些截然相反的方式。[l]照此我们应当放弃“小猴看样学样”的观点,转而探索更深奥的理论。

从孩子的立场来看看这个问题。他处于新情况下,没有形成现成的反应。[2]他寻找一个能够实现一定目的的反应。如果他对这一新情况既没有现成反应,又不能想出该怎么去做,他会选择一个榜样来观察,这个榜样看起来能获得正确的结果,他会寻找一个能指导他如何去做的权威或专家。

这种情况下还有一种因素在起作用。[3]孩子们也许能够立刻实现他们的直接目标,却发现他的这种做法遭到其监护人的批评。当他隔着屋子大声喊叫着传话的时候,他被极力告诫叫嚷是不礼貌的,他应当走进隔壁房间,安静地说。这样一来,单纯应付客观情况的愿望就被恰当处理该情况的愿望压倒。孩子们较早就知道的事情之一就是,当他的父母满意他的反应时,他就会得到更多的关爱和表扬。后来进一步得知别的大人奖励一些行为而批评另一些行为。[3]如果一个人想要保持自尊和别人对他的支持,他就必须采取被其所处的社会团体认同的反应。

[5]在寻找可行的反应时,学习者不会随便选择模仿对象。[4]他模仿那些看上去值得效仿的人,而避免模仿那些社会身份他自己并不认同的人。如果这个学生想成为一个卓越的小提琴手,他就会观察并模仿一个出色琴手的技巧,而另外某个人则最可能影响他接近书籍。

[5]对一个人某一方面品质的崇拜常常使我从整体上崇拜这个人,于是他成了名人。我们把一些人当成各种情形下模仿的对象,模仿他们的一举一动。我们知道他们是可靠、值得模仿的对象,因为模仿他们可以走向成功。

【测试题】
1. By the last sentence of the first paragraph, the author_______________.
A) compares children’s behaviors to monkeys'
B) tells us that children do not learn by imitation
C) thinks it is partial co regard imitation as "Monkey see, monkey do"
D) means that children should not learn by imitating their parents

2. The first element at work when a child learns by imitation is__________________.
A) the need to find a way to attain the desired goal
B) the desire to be acknowledged by his social group
C) the desire to find an expert and authority
D) the need to find a way to avoid criticism

3. According to the third paragraph, besides achieving his goals. a child should also leam to_____.
A) attain his desired results as soon as possible
B) show his love for his parents and friends
C) talk in a low voice
D) behave properly

4. It can be inferred that children usually imitate people______________.
A) who do not scold them           B) who they want to be like
C) who have a high social status      D) who give them many rewards

5. The last two paragraphs are mainly about_________________.
A) how children leam by imitation
B) the motive of children’s imitation
C) how children choose models
D) how imitation influence children’s growth
 



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