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2014-08-06    来源:网络    【      托福雅思口语高分过

If our solar system has a Hell. it's Venus. The air is choked with foul and corrosive sulfur. heaved from ancient volcanoes and feeding acid clouds above. Although the second planet is a step farther from the sun than Mercury, a runaway greenhouse effect makes it hotter indeed. It's the hottest of the nine plants, a toasty 900 degrees Fahrenheit of baking rocky flats from equator to poles. All this under a crushing atmospheric pressure 90 times that of where you're sitting now. From the earthly perspective, a dead end. It must be lifeless.

"Venus has nothing," is the blunt word from planetologist Kevin Zahnle of NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley.  "We've written it off. "

Yet a small group of advanced life-forms on Earth begs to differ. and theorizes that bizarre microbial ecosystems might have once populated Venus and. in fact. may be there still. Members of this loose band of researchers suggest that their colleagues have water too much on the brain, and are, in a sense, H2O chauvinists(盲目的爱国者).

"Astrobiologists are neglecting Venus due more io narrow thinking than actual knowledge of the environment, or environments. where life can thrive." says Dirk Schulze-Makuch, a geobiologist at the University of Texas at El Paso who recently co-authored a Venus-boosting paper in Astrobiology wich colleague Louis Irwin.

The bias against life on Venus is partly rooted in our own biology. Human experience instructs that liquid water, preferably lot of it. is essential for life. In search for extraterrestrial life, we obsess over small rivers in Mars' surface apparently carved by ancient gushes of water. and delight in hints of permafrost (永久冻结带) just underneath its surface. (By comparison. Venus isn't even that interesting to look at: A boring cue ball (台球的白色母球) for backyard astronomers, its clouds reflects 75% of visible light.) Attention and then funding follow the water: Three more landers will depart for Mars this spring. and serious plans for sample-return missions hover in the midterm future.

"If you have limited resources, you base exploration on what you know." says Arizona State University planetary geologist Ronal Greeley. It's like losing your keys on the way home al night: The first place you look is under the streetlights not because they're more likely to be there. but because if they are. you’ll spot them. For astrobiologists. the streetlights are the spectral (光谱的) lines for water. and they've spotted that potential on Mars, Jupiter's moon Europa. even Neptune's moon Triton. Not on the baking rocky flats of Venus.


加州硅谷美国太空总署Ames研究中心的行星学家Kevin Zahnle直言!“金星上什么都没有,我们已经把它剔除到有生命的星球范围之外了。”


[5]一位来自 E1 Paso得克萨斯大学的地球生物学家Dirk Schulze-Makuch和他同事Louis Irwin合作写了一篇关于推动金星探索的论文,发表在刊物《天体生物学》里。他说:“天体生物学家忽略金星的原因,与其说是因为缺乏适合生命成长的环境方面的知识,不如说是因为思维狭隘。”


亚利桑那州立大学行星地质学家Ronal Greeley说:“如果你的资源有限,你只能在你现有知识的基础上做出探索。”这好比你在夜里回家的路上丢失了钥匙:你先找的地方是有街灯的地方,不是因为钥匙更可能在那里,而是因为如果要是真在那里,你就能看到。对于天体生物学家来说,水的光谱线的作用就如街灯,显示了火星、木卫二,甚里海卫一上有生命的可能。但是在金星高温的岩石表面却没有找到水的光谱。

1. Venus is the hottest of all the nine planets in the solar system because_____________.
A) it is not so close to the sun as Mercury
B) many volcanoes spread the whole planet
C) it is covered by a thick layer of cloud
D) greenhouse effect is uncontrollable on it

2. Some planetologists believed there had never been lives on Venus because____________.
A) they couldn't find any trace of water on it
B) they found Venus is too hot for any Jives
C) Venus is covered by dirty and poisonous cloud
D) Venus is the second nearest planet to the sun

3. It can be inferred from the passage that the small group of advanced lifeforms on Earth believed that_____________.
A) life could exist in hot environment B) life could exist without water
C) there are still lives on Venus      D) There used to be lives on Mars

4. What do we learn from the passage about Venus and Mars?
A) The atmospheric pressure of Venus is stronger than that of Mars.
B) Venus attracts more attention and funding than Mars.
C) Venus is closer to the sun than Mars.
D) Venus looks more beautiful than Mars.

5. The purpose of the co-authored paper by Dirk Schulze-Makuch and Louis Irwin was to_______.
A) introduce their findings about Venus
B) promote the exploration of Venus
C) convince others that there used to be lives on Venus
D) criticize omer scientists that they are narrow-minded

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