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暑假六级阅读训练18

2014-08-06    来源:网络    【      托福雅思口语高分过

If our solar system has a Hell. it's Venus. The air is choked with foul and corrosive sulfur. heaved from ancient volcanoes and feeding acid clouds above. Although the second planet is a step farther from the sun than Mercury, a runaway greenhouse effect makes it hotter indeed. It's the hottest of the nine plants, a toasty 900 degrees Fahrenheit of baking rocky flats from equator to poles. All this under a crushing atmospheric pressure 90 times that of where you're sitting now. From the earthly perspective, a dead end. It must be lifeless.

"Venus has nothing," is the blunt word from planetologist Kevin Zahnle of NASA Ames Research Center in California's Silicon Valley.  "We've written it off. "

Yet a small group of advanced life-forms on Earth begs to differ. and theorizes that bizarre microbial ecosystems might have once populated Venus and. in fact. may be there still. Members of this loose band of researchers suggest that their colleagues have water too much on the brain, and are, in a sense, H2O chauvinists(盲目的爱国者).

"Astrobiologists are neglecting Venus due more io narrow thinking than actual knowledge of the environment, or environments. where life can thrive." says Dirk Schulze-Makuch, a geobiologist at the University of Texas at El Paso who recently co-authored a Venus-boosting paper in Astrobiology wich colleague Louis Irwin.

The bias against life on Venus is partly rooted in our own biology. Human experience instructs that liquid water, preferably lot of it. is essential for life. In search for extraterrestrial life, we obsess over small rivers in Mars' surface apparently carved by ancient gushes of water. and delight in hints of permafrost (永久冻结带) just underneath its surface. (By comparison. Venus isn't even that interesting to look at: A boring cue ball (台球的白色母球) for backyard astronomers, its clouds reflects 75% of visible light.) Attention and then funding follow the water: Three more landers will depart for Mars this spring. and serious plans for sample-return missions hover in the midterm future.

"If you have limited resources, you base exploration on what you know." says Arizona State University planetary geologist Ronal Greeley. It's like losing your keys on the way home al night: The first place you look is under the streetlights not because they're more likely to be there. but because if they are. you’ll spot them. For astrobiologists. the streetlights are the spectral (光谱的) lines for water. and they've spotted that potential on Mars, Jupiter's moon Europa. even Neptune's moon Triton. Not on the baking rocky flats of Venus.

【参考译文】
如果我们的太阳系里真有地狱的话,那一定是金星。那里的空气充满着肮脏的带有腐蚀性的硫磺气味,硫磺从古老的火山上发出,并在上空形成了酸云。[1]/[4]虽然金星(离太阳第二近的行星)不如水星那么靠近太阳,但是温室效应的肆虐使它更热。它是九大行星中最热的一个,高速华氏900度的高温烘烤面包那样烘烤着从赤道到两极的岩石表面。而这里的大气压力是你现在坐着的地方的90倍。从地球的角度来看,这里确实是一个绝境。这里一定没有生命。

加州硅谷美国太空总署Ames研究中心的行星学家Kevin Zahnle直言!“金星上什么都没有,我们已经把它剔除到有生命的星球范围之外了。”

然而,一个研究地球高级生命形式的小团体表示“恕不同意”,并从理论上说金星上可能一度曾经存在过奇特的微生物生态系统,事实上,这个系统可能仍然存在着。[3]这个组织不太紧密的研究团体的成员指出,那些行星学家一定是脑袋进了太多的水了,某种意义上,他们太盲目认为水是生命存在的基本条件。

[5]一位来自 E1 Paso得克萨斯大学的地球生物学家Dirk Schulze-Makuch和他同事Louis Irwin合作写了一篇关于推动金星探索的论文,发表在刊物《天体生物学》里。他说:“天体生物学家忽略金星的原因,与其说是因为缺乏适合生命成长的环境方面的知识,不如说是因为思维狭隘。”

[2]对于金星上没有生命的看法,一部分源于我们自己的生物学知识。人类的经验指出,液态水是生命的基本,而且水越多越好。在寻找外星生命时,我们着迷于火星上的河流遗迹,那明显是由古老的水流留下的;我们对于在火星表面以下找到永久冻结带的线索而感到高兴。(相比之下,金星连看起来都没那么有趣:对天文爱好者来说,它就像是一个台球台上的母球一样单调沉闷,它的大气云层反射了75%的可见光。)找到水的遗迹后,接着就是对火星的关注及资助研究资金的提供:这个春季再有3辆火星车将离开地球,飞向火星;把火星上的样品带回地球的计划也很快要开始。

亚利桑那州立大学行星地质学家Ronal Greeley说:“如果你的资源有限,你只能在你现有知识的基础上做出探索。”这好比你在夜里回家的路上丢失了钥匙:你先找的地方是有街灯的地方,不是因为钥匙更可能在那里,而是因为如果要是真在那里,你就能看到。对于天体生物学家来说,水的光谱线的作用就如街灯,显示了火星、木卫二,甚里海卫一上有生命的可能。但是在金星高温的岩石表面却没有找到水的光谱。

【测试题】
1. Venus is the hottest of all the nine planets in the solar system because_____________.
A) it is not so close to the sun as Mercury
B) many volcanoes spread the whole planet
C) it is covered by a thick layer of cloud
D) greenhouse effect is uncontrollable on it

2. Some planetologists believed there had never been lives on Venus because____________.
A) they couldn't find any trace of water on it
B) they found Venus is too hot for any Jives
C) Venus is covered by dirty and poisonous cloud
D) Venus is the second nearest planet to the sun

3. It can be inferred from the passage that the small group of advanced lifeforms on Earth believed that_____________.
A) life could exist in hot environment B) life could exist without water
C) there are still lives on Venus      D) There used to be lives on Mars

4. What do we learn from the passage about Venus and Mars?
A) The atmospheric pressure of Venus is stronger than that of Mars.
B) Venus attracts more attention and funding than Mars.
C) Venus is closer to the sun than Mars.
D) Venus looks more beautiful than Mars.

5. The purpose of the co-authored paper by Dirk Schulze-Makuch and Louis Irwin was to_______.
A) introduce their findings about Venus
B) promote the exploration of Venus
C) convince others that there used to be lives on Venus
D) criticize omer scientists that they are narrow-minded



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