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暑假六级阅读训练21

2014-08-11    来源:网络    【      托福雅思口语高分过

Every year television stations receive hundreds of complaints about the loudness of advertisements. However. federal rules forbid the practice of making ads louder than the programming. In addition, television stations always operate at the highest sound level allowed for reasons of efficiency. According to one NBC executive. no difference exists in the peak sound level of ads and programming. Given this information. why do commercials sound so loud?

The sensation of sound involves a variety of factors in addition to its peak level. Advertisers are skilful at creating the impression of loudness through their expert use of such factors. One major contributor to the perceived loudness of commercials is that much less variation in sound level occurs during a commercial. In regular programming the intensity of sound varies over a large range. However, sound levels in commercials tend to stay at or near peak levels.

Other "tricks of the trade" are also used. Because low-frequency sounds can mask higher frequency sounds. advertisers filter out any noises that may drown out the primary message. In addition, the human voice has more auditory (听觉的) impact in che middle frequency ranges. Advertisers electronically vary voice sounds so that they stay within such a frequency band. Another approach is to write the script so that lots of consonants(辅音) are used, because people are more aware of consonants than vowel (元音) sounds. Finally, advertisers try to begin commercials with sounds that are highly different from those of the programming within which the commercial is buried. Because people become adapted to the type of sounds coming from programming. a dramatic change in sound quality draws viewer attention. For example. notice how many commercials begin with a cheerful song of some type.

The attention-getting property of commercials can be seen by observing one-to-two-year-old children who happen to be playing around a television set. They may totally ignore the programming. However. when a commercial comes on.their attention is immediately drawn to it because of its dramatic sound quality.

【参考译文】
每年电视台都会接到上百个抱怨广告声音太响的投诉。[1]然而,联邦法律禁止广告声音大于节目的声音。此外,考虐到效率原因,电视台经常使用被许可的最大音量播出。[1]据国家广播公司的-个官员称,广告和节目的最大音量并无区别。既然如此,为什么广告声音听上去那么大呢?

[2]人们对声音的感觉除受音量峰值影响外还受到很多因素的影响。广告人通过娴熟地运用这些因素使人感觉广告的声音很大。能造成广告这种高音错觉的一个主要的高招是使广告中的音量变化极少。在普通节目中,声音的强度在很大范围内变化。[2]而在广告中,音量总是维持在最高或接近最高的峰值。

其他“独门暗器”也被用上了。因为低频声音能盖住音频较高的声音,广告人把广告中任何能盖住基本信息的噪音都过滤掉。此外,人类的声音对听觉最有冲击力的是中额区的声音。广告人通过电子手段改变声音使其始终处于该频段内。再有一个方法就是撰写的脚本中使用大量辅音,因为相对元音人们更注意辅音。[4]最后,广告人尝试使用与节目明显不同的声音来播出淹没在众多节目中的广告。[3]因为人们已经适应了节目中传来的那种声音,所以声音的强烈变化会吸引观众的注意力。例如,你会注意到有很多广告是用某类欢快的歌曲开头的。

[4]广告具有引人注意的特性。这种特性可从在电视机旁玩耍的一两岁大的孩子身上得到验证。他们完会不理会电视里的节目,[4]但是当广告开始的时候,孩子们的注意力立刻就被它那种夸张的音质吸引过去了。

【测试题】
1. According to the passage, the maximum intensity of sound coming from commercials________.
A) does not exceed that of programs
B) is greater than that of programs
C) varies over a large range than that of programs
D) is less than that of programs

2. Commercials create che sensation of loudness because____________________.
A) TV stations always operate at the highest sound levels
B) their sound levels are kept around peak levels
C) their sound levels are kept in the middle frequency ranges
D) unlike regular programs their intensity of sound varies over a wide range

3. Many commercials begin with a cheerful song of some kind because_________________.
A) pop songs attract viewer attention
B) it can increase their loudness
C) advertisers want to make them sound different from regular programs
D) advertisers want to merge music with commercials

4. One of the reasons why commercials are able to attract viewer attention is that_____________.
A) the human voices in commercials have more auditory impact
B) people like cheerful songs that change dramatically in sound quality
C) high-frequency sounds are used to mask sounds that drown out the primary message
D) they possess sound qualities that make the viewer feel that something unusual is happening

5. In the passage, the author is trying to tell us________________.
A) how TV ads vary vocal sounds to attract attention
B) how the loudness of TV ads is overcome
C) how advertisers control the sound properties of TV ads
D) how the attention-getting properties of sounds are made use of in TV ads
 



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