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六级高频语法汇总4

2014-04-01    来源:网络    【      托福雅思口语高分过

非谓语动词结构真题难句荟萃
分词

1.Primary care physicians who refuse to compromise quality are either driven out of business or to cash-only practices,further contributing to the decline of primary care.
分析:主干:...physicians...are either driven out of business or to(cash-only)practices...
①either... or...并列连接两个介词词组out of business和to cash-only practices,接在driven之后。②句子主语physicians有前置定语primary care和who引导的定语从句修饰。句末的现在分词短语contributing...作状语,表示伴随are driven...而来的结果。
译文:不愿降低服务质量的初级护理医生要么被迫停业,要么提供只收现金的服务,这进一步加剧了初级护理服务的下滑。

2.Ultimately we must get a handle on those issues as well,or a creature that outlived the dinosaurs will meet its end at the hands of humans,leaving our descendants to wonder how a creature so ugly could have won so much affection.
分析:主干:...we must get a handle(on...)or a creature...will meet its end...
①本句是由or连接的并列句,or表示“否则,要不然”。②前一分句中,get a handle on表示“开始理解或了解”;后一分句中,主语a creature后有一个that引导的定语从句修饰,outlive“比……更长寿”,现在分词短语leaving作状语,表示谓语“meet its end(玩完)”所造成的后果。leave...to ...中的不定式to wonder作our descendants的补语,wonder后接了一个how引导的宾语从句。
译文:最终我们也一定要解决这个问题,否则这些比恐龙幸存时间还长的生物就将在人类的手上灭绝,到时我们的后代可能会好奇,为什么如此丑陋的生物居然能够得那么多的关爱。

不定式
3.Remove the pressure for primary care physicians to squeeze in more patients per hour,and reward them for optimally managing their diseases and practicing evidence-based medicine.
分析:主干:Remove the pressure...and reward them for...
①本句由and并列连接的两个祈使句构成。②前一个祈使句中,不定式短语to squeeze...(往每个小时的时间里塞更多的病人)作定语,修饰the pressure,该不定式的逻辑主语由for引导。后一个祈使句中,介词for...表示原因,后面接了两个动名词短语managing...和practicing...。
译文:要解除初级护理医生在单位时间内多看病人的压力,并对那些能很好控制疾病和实践循证医疗的医生给予嘉奖。

4.But economists say families about to go into debt to fund four years of partying,as well as studying,can console themselves with the knowledge that college is an investment that,unlike many bank stocks,should yield huge dividends.
分析:主干:...economists asy(families...can console themselves with...)
①say后面的内容都是say的宾语。该宾语从句的主语是families,其后有一个不定式短语to go...修饰;不定式to fund...作前一个不定式to go into debt的目的状语;as well as相当于一个并列连词,连接partying和studying.②knowledge后的that从句作其同位语,说明“该知识”的具体内容;an investment后的that引导的是定语从句,从句的主语和谓语被插入成分unlike...分隔开了。
译文:不过经济学家说大家是一项投资,而且和许多银行股票不同的是,这项投资可以带来巨大的红利,打算举债来提供4年狂欢和学习资金的家庭在知道这一点之后可以有所安慰了。

动名词
5.Make primary care more attractive to medical students by forgiving student loans for those who choose primary care as a career and reconciling the marked difference between specialist and primary care physician salaries.
分析:主干:Make primary care more attractive...
①本句主干是个祈使句,用了“make+宾语(primary care)+补语(more attractive)”的句型。②介词短语by...表示方式,后面带了两个动名词短语forgiving...和reconciling...。forgive的常用意思是“原谅”,句中则表示“豁免,免除”;reconcile表示“调和”。who引导的定语从句修饰those,从句中用了choose...as...的结构,表示“选择……做(职业)”。difference后面有一个between引导的介词短语作定语,between的宾语是(specialist and primary care physician)salaries,也就是说,salaries有两个定语,specialist和physician。
译文:免除选择做初级护理医生的学生的助学贷款,调和专科医生和初级保健医生的工资差距,以此吸引更多的医科学生选择初级护理工作。

6.Does going to Columbia University(tuition,room and board $49,260 in 2007-08)yield a 40% greater return than attending the University of Colorado at Boulder as an out-of-state student($35,542)?
分析:主干:Does going to...yield a...greater return than attending...?
①本句是简单疑问句,比较句型,两个动名词短语going to...和attending...进行比较,这两个名词都接了某个大学的名字作宾语,所以主干的含义是:难道上A大学比上B大学多出40%的收益吗?yield a return“产生利益回报,产生收益”。②括号里的内容分别说明上两所大学的费用。句末as引导的介词短语作状语,表示身份。
译文:难道去哥伦比亚大学(2007-2008年度的学费和住宿共计49260美元)真的会比跨州在博尔德上科罗拉多大学(2007-2008年度学费和住宿共计35542美元)多带来40%的回报吗?



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