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技巧:9个办法找出四六级阅读答案

2016-03-31    来源:网络    【      托福雅思口语高分过

技巧:9个办法找出四六级阅读答案

答题技巧一:详略得当
对于大学英语四级快速阅读测试来说,根据题目的“题眼”快速在文章中找到答案是最关键的,这样我们就要在阅读时注意详略得当。克服精读精益求精的习惯,做到有信息处精读,无信息处略读,略读处一扫而过。对所要解释或证明的观点的细节举例处或者通常有数个名词的并列项,它们不是完整的主谓宾的句子,因此无法与问题对应的详细列举处,都可以略读。那么题目中数字、人名等信息(题眼)在原文中对应的部分必须详读。

CET-4样卷原文中有这样一段:

There are two ways to bury trash:

Dump—an open hole in the ground where trash is buried and that is full of various animals (rats, mice, birds). (This is most people‘s idea of a landfill!)

Landfill—carefully designed structure built into or on top of the ground in which trash is isolated from the surrounding environment (groundwater, air, rain). This isolation is accomplished with a bottom liner and daily covering of soil.

Sanitary landfill—landfill that uses a clay liner to isolate the trash from the environment

Municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill—landfill that uses a synthetic (plastic) liner to isolate the trash from the environment

文章是对Dump和Landfill分别做了一个解释,这些就应该是考生略读的地方。

答题技巧二:显性信息
查读的信息通常是显性信息,只要将问题在原文中进行准确定位就能得到正确答案,一般不需要做推理。

[例2] The death rate on highways is half that of all other U.S. roads (0.86 deaths per 100 million passenger miles compared to 1.99 deaths per 100 million on all other roads).

[题目] In spite of safety considerations, the death rate on interstate highways is still higher than that of other American roads.

[解析] 从题干中的关键信息短语 the death rate on interstate highway可采取寻读法找到最后一句话为原文出处。原文中明确指出高速公路上的死亡率只是其他公路的一半(half that of…)与题干中的 is still high than(仍高出)相矛盾,可判断此句话错误。

特别提示:考生对于以下一些显性信息也应注意
(1)表示因果关系的词或词组:because,reason,due to,since,so that,therefore等

(2)表示目的关系的词或词组:in order to,so as to,by等

(3)表示转折关系的词或词组:but,however,yet等

(4)表示对比关系的词或词组:contrary to,unlike,like等

答题技巧三:题文同序
大学英语四级考试的快速阅读部分,问题顺序与原文顺序一致(有时判断题和填空题交汇处顺序不一致),这就要求考生应该按照题目的顺序依次做题。对于所有的四级快速阅读文章这个技巧都适用,在此就不做特别举例

答题技巧四:分解对应
分解对应四分法(快速阅读的解题核心):快速将问题分解成4个部分(主A 谓B宾C+其他D),与原文进行对比。

[例3] A landfill is not like a compost pile, where the purpose is to bury trash in such a way that it will decompose quickly.

[题目] Landfills are like compost piles in that they speed up decomposition of the buried trash.

[解析] 我们可以将题目简单划分句子成分:主语为Landfills,谓语为are,宾语为like compost piles,speed up decomposition of the buried trash.与原文bury trash in such a way that it will decompose quickly相对应,这样我们就很容易的看到题目Landfills are like compost piles,可是原文中却是A landfill is not like a compost pile,很明显我们就可以得到正确答案,故答案为N

答题技巧五:一段一题、长段两题、平均分配
大学英语四级考试的快速阅读的出题方式一般都为一段出一题、长段出两题,遵循平均分配题目所在位置的原则,在此也不做特别举例。

答题技巧六:选小不选大
四级快速阅读中,问题的范围必须小于原文范围,反之则判定为错N

[例4] In the United States, taking care of trash and building landfills are local government responsibilities.

[题目] In the United States the building of landfills is the job of both federal and local governments.

[解析] 原文明白无误地告诉考生“清理垃圾以及建造清埋场是由当地政府负责的”。据此可断定,该论断不准确,答案为N.

在此特别提示考生,如果题目中所表述的内容与原文明显不符、矛盾或相反,可判断为N

确定为N的情况:

(1)题目中的信息与原文内容相反

(2)题目将原文的意思张冠李戴

(3)将原文中的不确定因素转化为确定因素

(4)改变原文中的条件、范围等

答题技巧七:两段判定(判断NG最好方法)
在四级快速阅读中,如果上一题已经确定了在原文中的位置,读过两段后仍无下一题所需信息,则可以判定该题为NG,而不用通读全文。

答题技巧八:主宾判定
四级快速阅读中,将题干的句子进行简单分解后,问题中的主语、宾语在原文未出现或被偷换概念是,判定为NG

确定为NG的情况:

(1)题目中的表述无中生有

(2)原文中作者的目的、意图、愿望等内容在题目中作为客观事实陈述

(3)将原文中的特殊情况推广为普遍现象

(4)将原文的内容具体化

(5)随意比较原文中的两个事物

答题技巧九:相关信息准确合并
快速阅读文章中有时可能会问到所面临的问题是什么?某事情的原因是什么?等等,这样的问题在文中可能是在不同的位置都有表述,所以考生遇到这样的问题时,不能只局限在某一段里面找答案,可以先做后面的题目,在后面的阅读中发现还有该题的答案时,将相关信息合并后再确定答案

[例5] Water woes may seem remote to people living in rich countries like the United States. But Americans could face serious water shortages, too especially in areas that rely on groundwater. Groundwater accumulates in aquifers, layers of sand and gravel that lie between soil and bedrock. (For every liter of surface water, more than 90 liters are hidden underground.) Although the United States has large aquifers, farmers, ranchers, and cities are tapping many of them for water faster than nature can replenish it. In northwest Texas, for example, over pumping has shrunk groundwater supplies by 25 percent, according to Postal.

Americans may face even more urgent problems from pollution. Drinking water in the United States is generally safe and meets high standards. Nevertheless, one in five Americans every day unknowingly drinks tap water contaminated with bacteria and chemical wastes, according to the Environmental Protection Agency. In Milwaukee, 400,000 people fell ill in 1993 after drinking tap water tainted with cryptosporidium, a microbe that causes fever, diarrhea and vomiting.

[题目] The problems Americans face concerning water are ground water shrinkage and tap water pollution.

[解析]根据上面2段文章,美国人面临水的问题主要有两个:But Americans could face serious water shortages, too especially in areas that rely on groundwater.和Americans may face even more urgent problems from pollution.这两句话决定了题目的答案,故为Y



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