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英语阅读理解逻辑关系怎么破?

2014-06-17    来源:新东方    【      托福雅思口语高分过

很多同学反应,考研阅读比四六级难太多,四六级文章一般读懂就能做对,而考研就算读懂,还是做不对?有人把它归结为选项迷惑性太强。实则不然,究其根源还是你没有真正读懂。什么叫真正读懂?真正的读懂不仅要明白语义,更重要的是,要搞清语义背后暗含的逻辑关系,而这种逻辑关系的考察恰恰是考研阅读的精髓所在。下面我通过4道真题来给大家分析一下语义背后逻辑的重要性。

例题1:2005年 Text1

The researchers studied the behaviour of female brown capuchin monkeys. They look cute. They are good-natured, co-operative creatures, and they share their food readily. Above all, like their female human counterparts, they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of "goods and services" than males. Such characteristics make them perfect candidates for Dr. Brosnan's and Dr. de Waal's study.

21) Female capuchin monkeys were chosen for the research most probably because they are ________.

[A] more inclined to weigh what they get

[B] attentive to researchers' instructions

[C] nice in both appearance and temperament

[D] more generous than their male companions

这道题题干问,选雌性卷尾猴做研究的主要原因是由于这些猴子_________

显然这道题在问"主要原因",而不是"原因",所以次要原因很可能被命题人设置为干扰项,果不其然,C选项(appearance and temperament)对应原文(They look cute. They are good-natured),D选项(generous)对应原文(they share their food readily),所以C和D选项都为次要原因,那么正确答案应在A或B中出一个?再回到原文看,文中有个能体现"主要原因"的关键词Above all, 所以它后面引出的内容为答案。 原文说,Above all, like their female human counterparts, they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of "goods and services" than males. 所以最后答案为A,因为选项A中pay much closer attention to the value对应原文more inclined to weigh,what they get对应原文"goods and services"。这样分析倒也不错,但我们还可以做得更好?

大家仔细再看一下原文中这句答案句,Above all, like their female human counterparts, they tend to pay much closer attention to the value of "goods and services" than males. 这句后背后存在什么逻辑关系呢?"比较"(much closer…than…)。所以正确选项肯定也应含有比较关系,再看选项,存在比较关系的只有A和D,很多同学考场上还在纠结B选项是否正确,因为researchers' instructions没在原文找到出处,不知道它是真没说过,还是被同义替换掉了,实际上B选项天生违法,因为没有体现比较关系。

例题2:2000年 Text4

Urban Japanese have long endured lengthy commutes (travels to and from work) and crowded living conditions, but as the old group and family values weaken, the discomfort is beginning to tell.

66)The change in Japanese life-style is revealed in the fact that ________.

这道题答案为A,the young are less tolerant of discomforts in life

这道题答案句为but as the old group and family values weaken, the discomfort is beginning to tell(随着旧的群体观念和家庭观念的削弱,这种不舒适开始产生影响)。有同学问,答案句也没有体现比较关系啊,怎么正确答案会有比较呢?这个答案句中的比较关系不是通过比较级或最高级体现的,而是通过weaken, tell(vi. 产生影响), weaken表示"由强到弱的变化",tell表示"从无到有的变化",变化本身就暗含着一种比较。只不过表达的很隐晦。结论:比较关系,不一定非得通过比较级或最高级的形式体现,"变化"也可以表示一种比较。

例题3:2005年Text2

Fortunately, the White House is starting to pay attention. But it's obvious that a majority of the president's advisers still don't take global warming seriously. Instead of a plan of action, they continue to press for more research--a classic case of "paralysis by analysis."

28) What does the author mean by "paralysis by analysis" (Last line, Paragraph 4)?

[A] Endless studies kill action.

[B] Careful investigation reveals truth.

[C] Prudent planning hinders progress.

[D] Extensive research helps decision-making.

题干在问作者想通过"paralysis by analysis"表达什么意思?

解这道题的线索为破折号,破折号表明前后为解释关系,paralysis by analysis具体表达什么意思,破折号前应为答案,破折号前面的内容是Instead of a plan of action, they continue to press for more research(没有行动的计划,他们继续要求进行更多的研究),这句话背后暗含逻辑关系为"因果",因为要求进行更多的研究,所以没有行动的计划,更多的研究为"因",没有行动的计划为"果"。

选项分析:你可以认为B中的careful research和D选项的Extensive research是和原文more research对等,都表原因, 但B,D选项的结果是reveals truth 和helps decision-making,和文中提到的结果是Instead of a plan of action完全对不上,果断排除。C选项认为Prudent planning为原因,hinders progress为结果。C选项把结果当成了原因,犯了"因果倒置"的错误。所以在语义和逻辑上都和原文相符的只有A。

例题4:2000年Text1 51题:

The U.S. achieved its predominance after World War II because ________.

这道题答案为C,the war had destroyed the economies of most potential competitors

通过这道题题干可知这道题是问原因的,但文章对应的答案句America and Americans were prosperous beyond the dreams of the Europeans and Asians whose economies the war had destroyed.也没有表因果逻辑的关系词啊?实际这句话中whose就表因果逻辑关系,虽然在形式上whose引导的是定语从句,但定语从句翻译除了前置法,后置法,还有一种重要的译法,就是可以转译为状语从句,这句转译为状语从句为:美国的繁荣和美国人的富裕是欧亚诸国做梦也未曾想到的,因为欧亚诸国的经济受到了战争的摧毁。所以这句话背后暗含着"因果逻辑关系。"结论:以后出现问原因的因果细节题,文中不一定非得出现明显表示因果逻辑关系的词(比如,because, due to, owning to),定语从句也可以转译为状语从句表因果逻辑关系,最后再说一句,实际英语中有很多暗含因果逻辑的词(比如,stimulate,spur等),所以再给大家一个建议,单词除了背词义外,还要掌握某些词背后蕴含的逻辑关系,这也是我们词汇课上的一个重点。

由于篇幅有限,我只对比较(例题1, 2)和因果(例题3, 4)两大逻辑关系进行了简单分析,作为老师,我会在太原新东方考研阅读课上把所有常考的逻辑关系给大家总结好。这样以来才能真正读懂文章(语义明白+逻辑清晰),把题做对。所以,以前总认为把题做错是由于干扰项变态的同学,应该能够意识到:题目做错并不是看似变态的干扰项,而是对文章理解的不到位。



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