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考研英语名师权威指点考研英语备考(二)

2014-08-20    来源:外研社    【      托福雅思口语高分过

新东方四大泰斗级考研英语名师权威指点考研英语备考(二)

亲,你还在为阅读理解抓狂么?新东方考研英语四大名辅为你提供最详尽的题型分析,熟知题型,方能知己知彼,秒杀阅读理解Part A。

四、题型特征

考研阅读理解Part A的题型有:细节题、推理题、例证题、词汇题、细节题、推理题、例证题、词汇题、句子理解题、是非题、作者态度题、主旨题等。按照宏观微观的角度,可以分成:宏观题(主旨题、作者态度题)、微观题(细节题、词汇题、句子理解题)和宏观微观相结合题(推理题、是非题、例证题)。

(一)细节题

1. 题干特征:针对段落中的细节信息(人、事物)提问。

2. 做题方法:利用考研阅读的理解步骤。

3. 选项特征:

(1) 正确选项:与对应段中的某句话表达的意思一致,即同义替换。寻找对应句的顺序是:关键词所在句─转折词所在句─段首句和段尾句─剩余的句子─文章中心

(2) 错误选项:一般是原文中其他无关句子里单词的拼凑;选项中大部分单词与对应段的某句话重复,但是个别单词偷换了概念;错误原因为正反混淆或无中生有。

示例:2000年考研阅读Part A真题第55题

Being a man has always been dangerous. There are about 105 males born for every 100 females, but this ratio drops to near balance at the age of maturity, and among 70-year-olds there are twice as many women as men. But the great universal of male mortality is being changed. Now, boy babies survive almost as well as girls do. This means that, for the first time, there will be an excess of boys in those crucial years when they are searching for a mate. More important, another chance for natural selection has been removed. Fifty years ago, the chance of a baby (particularly a boy baby) surviving depended on its weight. A kilogram too light or too heavy meant almost certain death. Today it makes almost no difference. Since much of the variation is due to genes, one more agent of evolution has gone.

55. What used to be the danger in being a man according to the first paragraph?

[A] A lack of mates. [B] A fierce competition. [C] A lower survival rate.  [D] A defective gene.

[关键词]  used to,danger,being a man

[解题思路] 本题要求根据第一段判断曾经什么使得作为一个男人是一件危险的事。关键词所在句为该段第一句:Being a man has always been dangerous.(作为男人总是很危险的。)对应题干的内容,但没有四个选项的信息。再看转折词所在句:There are about 105 males born for every 100 females, but this ratio drops to near balance at the age of maturity, and among 70-year-olds are twice as many women as men.(男婴和女婴的出生比例是105:100,但在成年以后,这个比例便降到基本持平;而到了70岁时,女性的人数就达到男性的两倍了。)故[C] A lower survival rate.(存活率降低)正确。

[错项排除] [A] A lack of mates.(缺乏配偶。)体现在文中now之后,是现在发生的事情,不符合题干中的used to be。错误原因为答非所问。[B] A fierce competition.(竞争激烈。)文中未提及。[D] A defective gene.(基因有缺陷。)文中也未提及。

(二)推理题

1. 题干特征:一般含有infer,imply,learn,indicate,suggest等。

2. 三种考法:

(1)细节推理题

题干中除了有推理题的标志词外,还有其他名词关键词。和细节题一样,做题时可以按照考研阅读的解题步骤来,正确答案为对应段某句的同义替换。
示例:2008年考研阅读Part A真题第34题

Genetic maximums can change, but don’t expect this to happen soon. Claire C. Gordon, senior anthropologist at the Army Research Center in Natick, Mass., ensures that 90 percent of the uniforms and workstations fit recruits without alteration. She says that, unlike those for basketball, the length of military uniforms has not changed for some time. And if you need to predict human height in the near future to design a piece of equipment, Gordon says that by and large, “you could use today’s data and feel fairly confident.”

34. We learn from the last paragraph that in the near future

[A] the garment industry will reconsider the uniform size.
[B] the design of military uniforms will remain unchanged.
[C] genetic testing will be employed in selecting sportsmen.
[D] the existing data of human height will still be applicable.

[关键词] in the near future

[解题思路] 题干词:我们从最后一段可知,在不久的将来会怎么样。关键词出现在末段末句: And if you need to predict human height in the near future to design a piece of equipment, Gordon says that by and large, “you could use today’s data and feel fairly confident.”(如果你需要通过预测人类在不远将来的身高来设计一套装备的话,戈登说,大体上“你可以相当放心地使用现在的数据”。)[D] the existing data of human height will still be applicable. (当前的人类身高数据在将来仍然适用。)与该句是同义替换,故[D]项正确。

[错项排除] [A] the garment industry will reconsider the uniform size.(服装业将重新考虑制服的尺寸。)与文意相反,错误原因为正反混淆。[B] the design of military uniforms will remain unchanged.(军装的设计将保持不变。)对应文中的the length of military uniforms has not changed for some time(军装的长度已经很长时间没变过了),错误原因为偷换概念。[C] genetic testing will be employed in selecting sportsmen.(基因检测将被应用装于挑选运动员。)文中未提及,错误原因为无中生有。

(2)段落推理题

题干中除了有推理题的标志词外,无其他关键词。做题顺序:由于题干没有关键词,则通读对应段,正确答案经常出现的位置一般是:段首句、段尾句、转折词处。

示例:2012年考研阅读Part A真题第30题

The company seems to have concluded that its reputation in Vermont is already so damaged that it has nothing left to lose by going to war with the state. But there should be consequences. Permission to run a nuclear plant is a public trust. Entergy runs 11 other reactors in the United States, including Pilgrim Nuclear station in Plymouth. Pledging to run Pilgrim safely, the company has applied for federal permission to keep it open for another 20 years. But as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the company’s application, it should keep in mind what promises from Entergy are worth.

30. It can be inferred from the last paragraph that

[A] Entergy’s business elsewhere might be affected. [B] the authority of the NRC will be defied.
[C] Entergy will withdraw its Plymouth application. [D] Vermont’s reputation might be damaged.

[关键词] inferred

[解题思路] 题干问从最后一段可以推测出什么内容。通读最后一段可知,本段从安特吉公司自身的角度,说明了违背承诺对其声誉的影响。句①和句②指出,安特吉公司与州政府开战会带来严重的后果。接着句③解释原因,因为准许它经营核电站表明公众的一种信任,此处暗示安特吉公司违背承诺会损害公众对它的信任,从而影响它对其他核电站的经营。句④至句⑥以实例说明安特吉公司经营的其他核电站可能会因其违背承诺而受到影响。从这些内容来看,选项[A] Entergy’s business elsewhere might be affected(安吉特公司在其他地方的业务可能会受影响)最符合本段的信息。

[错项排除] 本段首句提到:The company seems to have concluded that its reputation in Vermont is already so damaged that it has nothing left to lose by going to war with the state.(安特吉公司似乎已经断定,既然自己在佛蒙特州已经名誉扫地,那么即使与州政府开战,也不会再有任何损失。)[D] Vermont’s reputation might be damaged.(佛蒙特州的名誉会受损。)与之对应,但与文中名誉受损的主体不一样,错误原因为偷换概念。本段末句提到:But as the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) reviews the company’s application, it should keep in mind what promises from Entergy are worth.(但当美国核能管理委员会 [NRC] 审核安特吉公司的申请时,定会考虑它的承诺有多少可信度。)[B] the authority of the NRC will be defied. (美国核能管理委员会的权威会受到挑战。)与之对应,但意思与之不一致。[C] Entergy will withdraw its Plymouth application.(安特吉公司将撤销其有关普利茅斯核电站的申请。)对应本段第四句:Entergy runs 11 other reactors in the United States, including Pilgrim Nuclear station in Plymouth. 但该句只说安特吉公司在美国还经营了另外11家核电站,包括普利茅斯的皮尔格林核电站,但没有提到withdraw(撤销),错误原因为偷换概念。

以上内容节选自外语教学与研究出版社出版的《2015四大名师历年考研英语真题超详解及复习指导(试卷版)》。



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