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考研英语名师权威指点考研英语备考(八)

2014-09-05    来源:外研社    【      托福雅思口语高分过

新东方四大泰斗级考研英语名师权威指点考研英语备考(八)

阅读新题型7个萝卜5个坑引发选择困难症,新东方考研英语四位大师对症下药,让你从此不再纠结。

2013年试题超详解

Section II  Reading Comprehension

Part B

二、试题精解

41. E

[解题方法] 代词指代 +复现结构 +无关词排除 +上下文逻辑关系定位
[题目解析] 本空出现在段落的中部,前后均有原文信息,首先要对本空前后的原文信息有一个整体把握。本空之前的原文信息就是段落首句: Yet this enormous resource is not contributing enough to today’s global challenges, including climate change, security, sustainable development and health.(但是如此丰富的资源并没有为解决当前包括气候变化、安全问题、可持续发展和健康问题在内的全球性难题做出足够的贡献。)这是明显的概括性句子,也是全文的中心主线句,本空的信息一定会围绕此主题展开。

本空之后的内容谈论的似乎是一个具体的例子,即 Humanity has the necessary agro-technological tools to eradicate hunger, from genetically engineered crops to artificial fertilizers. Here, too, the problems are social: the organization and distribution of food, wealth and prosperity.(人类已经掌握了从转基因作物到化肥等必要的农业技术手段来消除饥饿,但这些问题也是社会性的:食物、财富和富足生活资源的组织与分配。)

根据本空之前的原文信息,大致可以判断出本空需填信息先是展开说明社会科学未能应对那些 global challenges(全球性难题)。而本空之后文中出现的关键线索词 too(同样地)表达的是并列关系,并且是针对一个具体的例子 eradicate hunger(消除饥饿)说的,说明之前空格中的信息也是一个具体的例子,而且这个例子也同样证明这些全球性难题不仅仅是技术问题,更是社会问题,而社会科学却未能应对这些全球性难题。

把握了这些定位信息和线索之后,再来比对 7个备选项,进行匹配:

[A]It could be that we are evolving two communities of social scientists: one that is discipline-oriented and publishing in highly specialized journals, and one that is problem-oriented and publishing elsewhere, such as policy briefs.
[A]项的主题明显是 two communities of social scientists(两大类社会科学家),肯定与本空的主题无关,根据无关词排除法予以排除。

[B]However, the numbers are still small: in 2010, about 1,600 of the 100,000 social-sciences papers published globally included one of these keywords.
[B]项中有关键线索词 However(表示转折),同时有指代词 the numbers,说明此选项之前的信息一定要提及数字,明显与本空无关,可排除。

[C]The idea is to force social scientists to integrate their work with other categories, including health and demographic change; food security; marine research and the bio-economy; clean, efficient energy; and inclusive, innovative and secure societies.
[C]项中出现了指代词 The idea,通读之后可以发现 The idea的具体内容与本空的信息并无关系,予以排除。

[D]The solution is to change the mindset of the academic community, and what it considers to be its main goal. Global challenges and social innovation ought to receive much more attention from scientists, especially the young ones.
[D]项具有一定的迷惑性,因为出现了 The solution(解决办法)和复现词汇 Global challenges(全球性难题)。本空之前的信息刚刚批评了社会科学没有为解决当今的全球性难题做出足够的贡献,如果“短视”地拼接信息,可能会觉得本空正好应该连接“解决办法”。但如果选 [D]项,就与本空之后的信息衔接不上了。因为本空后面接的是具体的例子,证明“这些全球性难题不仅仅是技术问题,也是社会问题”。根据线索词 too可知,应填信息也要有具体的例子来说明同样的问题,这显然在 [D]项中找不到,所以排除此项。

[E]These issues all have root causes in human behavior: all require behavioral change and social innovations, as well as technological development. Stemming climate change, for example, is as much about changing consumption patterns and promoting tax acceptance as it is about developing clean energy.
[E]项中出现了指代词 These issues,而本空之前的原文列举了一系列的全球性难题,包括 climate change,security,sustainable development和 health,所以在指代关系上可以成立。而且之后出现了关键词 for example,开始举具体的例子,即气候变化,并说明气候变化不仅仅是开发清洁能源的问题,也是改变消费模式和提高税收接受程度的问题。这个例子与本空之后文中饥饿问题的例子属于同一类型,都说明了这些全球性难题不仅仅是技术问题,也是社会问题,因此可确定本空选 [E]项。

42. F

[解题方法] 代词指代

[题目解析] 本空有明确的解题线索,即空格之后的指代词 This,通过找到 This的指代内容就可以迅速确定答案。根据 This is a shame(这是一件让人遗憾的事),直接就能判断出填入本空的信息一定是对社会科学的负面描述,达到能够成为“让人遗憾的事”的程度。

通读剩余的 6个备选项,不难发现对社会科学家的描述最具批评性的就是 [F]项,其他选项更多地是在进行事实性的描述。

[F]Despite these factors, many social scientists seem reluctant to tackle such problems. And in Europe, some are up in arms over a proposal to drop a specific funding category for social-science research and to integrate it within cross-cutting topics of sustainable development.
即“尽管存在上述因素,但许多社会科学家似乎并不愿意去解决这类问题。在欧洲,一些社会科学家对一项关于取消专用于社会科学研究的经费支持而将其融入可持续发展领域的跨界研究的提议表示强烈反对。”故本题答案可确定为 [F]。

43. B

[解题方法] 代词指代 + 复现结构 +上下文逻辑关系定位

[题目解析] 本题难度不高。首先,本空之前的文中出现了一些明显的线索词: Analyses reveal that the number of papers including the keywords“environmental change”or“climate change”have increased rapidly since 2004. (43) ____________________________即本空之前的主题信息是 the number of papers,including the keywords和 increased rapidly,根据这些关键线索词去浏览备选项,很容易匹配出 [B]项,因为这两个信息板块之间有很多的线索词可以“以点串面”。

Analyses reveal that the number of papers including the keywords“environmental change” or “climate change” have increased rapidly since 2004.

[B] However, the numbers are still small: in 2010, about 1,600 of the 100,000 social-sciences paperspublished globally included one of these keywords
而且,前文说 increased rapidly,[B]项中有 still small,前后构成转折关系,与 [B]项中的关键词However相符。

44. G

[解题方法] 代词指代 + 复现结构

[题目解析] 本空之后的句子是 This is an adequate amount…,意为“这样的数额是足够的”,This指代本空应填信息。本空之前的句子: The problem is not necessarily the amount of available funding,说明了本段是在谈论资金数额的问题,所以可以断定填入本空的信息一定会涉及资金数额方面的概念。然后再去浏览备选项,直接就能断定答案是 [G]项,因为它是所有选项中唯一涉及资金数额的选项。

[G]During the late 1990s, national spending on social sciences and the humanities as a percentage of all research and development funds—including government, higher education, non-profit and corporate— varied from around 4% to 25%; in most European nations, it is about 15%.

45. C

[解题方法] 代词指代 + 复现结构

[题目解析] 相对于前几题来说本题难度最大,但还是可以利用定位关键线索来确定答案。

(45) That should create more collaborative(合作的,协作的) endeavors…,即在本空之后的信息中出现了代词 That,并且这个 That会带动更多“合作性”的努力。根据这些关键信息,再在剩余的选项中找到涉及“合作的,协作的”的选项。

[C]The idea is to force social scientists to integrate their work with other categories, including health and demographic change; food security; marine research and the bio-economy; clean, efficient energy; and inclusive, innovative and secure societies.
[C]项提及了 integrate their work with other categories(将自身的工作与其他领域相结合), integrate与 collaborative构成了复现性对应,所以在剩余选项中明显 [C]项正确。

以上内容节选自外语教学与研究出版社出版的《2015四大名师历年考研英语真题超详解及复习指导(试卷版)》。



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