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考研英语翻译模拟及答案精解(四)

2014-11-17    来源:新东方    【      托福雅思口语高分过

考研英语翻译模拟及答案精解(四)

(1)(Any discussion of the American educational system would be less than complete if it did not mention the emphasis that many colleges and universities place upon the nonacademic, social,“extracurricular”aspect of education, often defined as personal growth.) Perhaps a useful way of viewing the notion of personal growth would be to picture the very large and general term“education” as being all-embracing, including as subsets within it academic and nonacademic components.
This may be one of the most difficult concepts to convey to someone who is not intimately familiar with American higher education. Few educational systems in other countries place the same emphasis on this blend of academic and personal education. The majority of colleges and universities in the United States make some attempt to integrate personal and intellectual growth in the undergraduate years. (2)( If the ultimate goal of undergraduate education in America were simply to convey a set body of knowledge, the term of studies could undoubtedly be reduced. )Yet the terms of studies are extended in order to give students a chance to grow and develop in other ways.

Numerous opportunities are made available to students to become involved in sports, student government, musical and dramatic organizations, and countless other organized and individual activities designed to enhance one’s personal growth and provide some recreation and enjoyment outside of the classroom. (3)(Experience with campus organizations and off-campus community involvement can be highly valuable in preparing international students for future leadership in their professional field upon their return home.)

The typical American college’s support for extracurricular activity is perhaps unique in the world, This special educational dimension, beyond the classroom and laboratory experience, does not mean that extracurricular participation is required to gain an American degree. It remains an entirely optional activity, but (4)(it is noted here because Americans have traditionally viewed success in one’s role as a citizen as closely linked to a “well-rounded”life that incorporates a variety of social, athletic, and cultural activities into a person’s experience.)
A great many American campuses and communities have organized special extracurricular activities for students from other countries. (5)(On most campuses, one can find an international club, which includes Americans,)where students can get to know and learn socially from students from other countries, as well as Americans. International students are almost always invited, through organized hospitality activities, into the homes of Americans living in or outside the academic community.


总体分析
本文主要介绍了美国教育系统注重培养学生课外活动能力,促进学生个性发展的特点。
第一至二段:指出美国本科教育努力将个性发展和智力发展相结合。
第三至五段:这种教育特点与美国人关于成功的社会公民的观念相关,并有利于培养国际学生的领导和交际能力。
试题精解
1.[精解] 本题考核的知识点是:条件状语从句、后置定语。

该句子是含条件状语从句的主从复合句。句子的主干是:Any discussion … would be less than complete。If条件从句翻译时应前置,其中代词it指代主句主语Any discussion …。条件句中又含有that引导的定语从句修饰the emphasis。定语从句的主干是:… universities place (emphasis)upon the … education,句子最后的分词结构(which is)defined as personal growth是前面名词短语the nonacademic, social,“extracurricular”aspect of education的后置定语。由于名词短语中已含有多个形容词做定语,因此,句末的后置定语应采用拆译法,译成同位语。
词汇方面:place emphasis upon (sth.)强调,重视;extracurricular课外的,业余的,extra-前缀意为“在外,外面”;personal growth个人成长。
2.[精解] 本题考核的知识点是:条件状语从句、词义的选择。
该句是含if条件句的主从复合句,而且是虚拟语气。
词汇方面:convey意思是“运送;传达,表达”,文中和knowledge搭配应译为“传授”。a body of原意是“大量,大批,大堆”,加入set后,可译为“一定量的”。term意思是“学期,期限;条款,条件,术语”等,根据上下文将它确定为“期限”。
3.[精解] 本题考核的知识点是:介词短语、词性转换。
这是个简单句,其主干是experience can be valuable,句子中的修饰成分基本上都是介词短语。主语experience后with … involvement结构做后置定语,翻译时将它提前;in preparing …结构做状语,译为“在……方面”。
词汇方面:off-campus校外,off-前缀意为“不在……上,离开,去掉”;involvement意为“参与,加入”,文中转译为动词。Upon可意为“……之后”。
4.[精解] 本题考核的知识点是:状语从句、后置定语。
该句是含原因状语从句的主从复合句,主句是it is noted here。Because引导的从句的主干是:Americans … viewed success …as closely linked to a “well-rounded”life,in one’s role as a citizen做后置定语修饰success,life后接有that引导的定语从句做定语。由于主句很短,而状语从句长且复杂,因此可以保留句子原来顺序。
词汇方面:note意为“注意,留意;指出,特别提到”。well-rounded是形容词,意为“全面的,完善的”。incorporate sth. into sth.意为“将……包括在内,包含”。
5.[精解] 本题考核的知识点是:定语从句。
句子主干是one can find an international club,句首介词短语On most campuses做地点状语,club后接有which和where分别引导的两个定语从句。由于从句较长,采用拆译法单独成句。而且由于两个定语从句共用一个先行词club,因此它需要译两次。

答案
1.如果对美国教育体系的讨论未能涉及许多学院及大学教育中非学术性的、社会的及“课程外”的方面,即其对个性成长的重视,那么这种讨论就不全面。
2.假如美国本科教育的最终目的只是传授一定量的知识,那么学习的期限无疑就可以缩短。
3.参与校园内的各种组织活动和校外团体活动的经验在培养国际学生归国后在其专业领域发挥领导作用方面是极有价值的。
4.在这里特别提到的是因为美国人历来认为,一个人作为社会公民的成功是与包括各种各样的社会、体育和文化活动的个人经历的全方位的生活紧密相关的。
5.在大多数的校园里都有国际俱乐部,成员包括美国学生。在俱乐部里,学生(包括美国学生)通过与来自其他国家的学生的社会交往相互认识并学习。

词汇方面:socially意为“在社交方面”。



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