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考研语法知识点:倒装句

2015-01-27    来源:文都教育    【      托福雅思口语高分过

考研语法知识点:倒装句

倒装句也属于特殊句式的一种,且种类多结构杂,但好在难度并不高,只要足够耐心就没问题,下面我们就来具体看一下。

一、完全倒装
1.表示方位或时间的副词或介词短语位于句首,主语是名词,符合上述两个条件,主语和谓语可完全倒装。标志词为:here, there, up, down, in, out, away, off, then, on the hill, in the river等。倒装结构:“主语+谓语”变为“谓语+主语”,成分形式没有变化,句子内容不增不减。
【例句】
The soccer fans rushed out.
=Out rushed the soccer fans.
球迷们冲了出去。

2.such位于句首时,主谓完全倒装。
【例句】Such was Norman Bethune, a noble person, a pure person, a moral person, and a vulgar person.这就是白求恩,一个高尚的人,一个纯粹的人,一个有道德的人,一个脱离了低级趣味的人。

二、部分倒装
部分倒装指将谓语的一部分如助动词或情态动词倒装至主语之前,而谓语动词无变化。如果句中的谓语没有助动词或情态动词,则需添加助动词do, does或did,并将其置于主语之前。
英语句子的倒装一是由于语法结构的需要而进行的倒装,二是由于修辞的需要而进行的倒装。前一种情况,倒装是必需的,否则就会出现语法错误;后一种情况,倒装是选择性的,倒装与否只会产生表达效果上的差异。倒装句是最突出、最常见的修辞效果就是强调。

1.Only引导的倒装句
Only+状语+特定的动词+主+谓
特定的动词包括:
助动词:do, does, did, have, has, had
情态动词:can, could, shall, should, will
be动词:am, is, are, was, were
【例句】
Because you gave someone a ring, I stumbled.
=Only because you gave someone a ring did I stumble.
因为你打了个电话,所以我绊倒了。

2.否定词提前至句首主谓部分倒装
结构:否定副词+特定动词+主语+谓语
1)否定副词
常用否定副词:not, no, never, neither
特殊否定副词:seldom, few, little, barely, hardly, scarcely, rarely, in vain
2)特定动词
助动词,情态动词,be动词
①No sooner…than, scarcely/hardly…when表示否定意义的词位于句首时常用部分倒装
【例句】
When I saw you for the first time, I fell in love deeply with you.
=No sooner had I seen you for the first time than I fell in love deeply with you.
=Hardly had I seen you for the first time when I fell in love deeply with you.
当我看见你的时候,就深深地爱上了你。
②Not only+特定动词+主语+谓语,but also+主语+谓语
【例句】
Internet has changed our living habit, and enhanced the efficiency of the government.
=Not only has Internet changed our living habit, but also enhanced the efficiency of the government.
网络不仅改变了我们的生活习惯也提高了政府的工作效率。

3.so…that结构倒装句:so为副词,副词修饰动词、形容词以及副词本身。因此有两种形式的so…that倒装
1)主语+ be+ so+表语(形容词)+that+从句(结果状语从句)
变倒装:so+表语(形容词)+be+主语+that+从句(结果状语从句)
【例句】
The food price is so high that we cannot afford any more.
=So high is the food price that we cannot afford any more.
菜价如此之高,我们都承受不起。
2)主语+谓语+so+副词(状语)+that+从句(结果状语从句)
变倒装:so+副词(状语)+特定动词(助动词或情态动词)+主语+谓语+that+从句(结果状语从句)
【例句】
You said your phone number so fast that I hardly wrote it down.
=So fast did you say your phone number that I hardly wrote it down.
你刚才电话号码说得太快了,我没有记录下来。

4.让步状语从句
1)表语倒装

Although主语+系语+表语,主句
变倒装:表语+as/though+主语+系语,主句
【例句】
Although many consumers are clever, they are always deceived by advertisements.
=Clever as/though many consumers are, they are always deceived by advertisements.
尽管很多消费者很聪明,但还是老上广告的当。
2)谓语动词的倒装
Although+主语+特定动词+谓语,主句
变倒装:谓语+as/though+主语+特定动词,主句
【例句】
Although you may object, I’ll go.
=Object as you may, I’ll go.
纵使你反对,我也要去。
3)状语的倒装
Although主语+谓语+状语,主句
变倒装:状语+as/though+主语+谓语,主句
【例句】
Although I like Paris much, I couldn’t live there.
=Much as I like Paris, I couldn’t live there.
尽管我喜欢巴黎,但我不能住在那里。(文都教育)



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