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考研语法知识点:分词作状语的用法总结

2015-05-12    来源:文都教育    【      托福雅思口语高分过

考研语法知识点:分词作状语的用法总结

在考研英语阅读中,长难句的结构分析一直是阅读理解中一个不容忽视的障碍,盘根错节的从句和结构复杂的非谓语动词常常把我们搞得晕头转向,不知所措。其实,由于非谓语动词短语比起从句来说会使整个句子更为紧凑和简洁,所以在文章中常常会使用到非谓语动词短语。非谓语动词短语的形式包括动名词、现在分词、过去分词、动词不定式,它们在句子中可以充当不同的句子成分,本文就来谈一下如何处理考研英语中分词作状语的情况。

一、表时间,可以和时间状语从句互换。如:
Studying in the university, he was very popular among his classmates.=

When he studied in the university, he was very popular among his classmates.

Seeing those pictures, she remembered her childhood. =

When she saw those pictures, she remembered her childhood.

二、表原因,可以和原因状语从句互换。如:
Not knowing her address, I wasn't able to contact her. =

Because I did not know her address, I wasn't able to contact her.

三、表条件,可以和条件状语从句互换。如:
Walking to work, you will save quite a lot of money.=

If you walk to work, you will save quite a lot of money.

四、表让步,可以和让步状语从句互换。如:
Defeated, he remained a popular boxer. =

Although he was defeated, he remained a popular boxer.

五、表方式,如:
He earns a living driving a truck.

I'm returning you letter as requested.

六、表伴随,如:
Losing a job is hurting: you don't skip down to the job centre with a song in your heart, delighted at the prospect of doubling your income from the generous state.(考研阅读真题2014 Text 1)
在这个句子中,delighted分词短语作伴随状语,表示去求职中心的状态。

七、表结果,
分词短语作结果状语在考研英语阅读中经常出现,并作为因果逻辑关系的考点出现在题干和选项中,请大家一定要注意非谓语动词短语的这种语法功能。如:

The best lawyers made skyscrapers-full of money, tempting ever more students to pile into law schools. (考研阅读真题2014 Text 2)

在这句话中,tempting分词短语作结果状语,表示最好的律师挣钱很多这种现象带来的结果是引起更多学生考法律学校。题干中的问题是A lot of students take up law as their profession due to,即学生学法律专业的原因是什么,这个问题从上句话中就可以找出答案,是因为经济回报的吸引,即选项the attraction of financial rewards。

By offering on-trend items at dirt-cheap prices, Cline argues, these brands have hijacked fashion cycles, shaking an industry long accustomed to a seasonal pace. (考研阅读真题2013 Text 1)

在这个句子中,shaking 分词短语作结果状语,表示品牌绑架时尚圈的后果。

Science and technology would cure all the ills of humanity, leading to lives of fulfillment and opportunity for all. (考研阅读真题2013 Text 3)

在这个句子中,leading分词短语作结果状语,表示科技将治愈人类所有疾病后带来的结果。

八.与逻辑主语构成独立主格,
Human nature being what it is, most people stick with default settings. (考研阅读真题2013 Text 2)

在这种结构中,需要注意非谓语动词的主语是其前出现的名词或名词短语。Being what it is 的逻辑主语是human nature, 翻译为人类本性就是这样。

在考研英语阅读中,分词短语作状语在句中出现的频率很大,大家需要注意分辨清分词短语与主句的逻辑关系,这样我们才能更好地理清文章结构,进而在选择答案时能够做到有的放矢。



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