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英语考研:快速识别一般独立主格形式?

2015-05-29    来源:kaoyan    【      托福雅思口语高分过

英语考研:快速识别一般独立主格形式?

独立主格结构”是一个比较高级的语法结构,也是考研英语阅读中比较难的语法点。小编整理了独立主格结构的识别和句法功能的资料,大家赶紧来学习吧!

独立主格结构由名词或代词作为逻辑主语,加上分词、形容词、副词、动词不定式或介词短语作为逻辑谓语构成,这种形式可以使语言更为简洁。不过,这种结构在形式上与主句没有关系,在句中的功能就相当于一个带有自己主语的状语从句。其实,虽然叫做独立主格结构,并不是真正的独立,它还是一种从属分句,在句中有多种作用。如:表原因、表条件、表补充、表伴随、表时间等,在句中通常起状语作用。

▶常见的形式
在句子形式上,有以下几种:
1.n/代词+分词 (-ing 、-ed)形式;
在句中,名词/主格代词与现在分词之间是主动关系。如:
The girl staring at him(= As the girl stared at him), he didn't know what to say.
如果是名词/主格代词+过去分词,那么名词/主格代词与过去分词之间是被动关系。如:
The problems solved(= As the problems were solved), the quality has been improved.

2.n/代词 +不定式;
名词/主格代词与不定式之间是主动关系,且强调的是一次具体性的动作。如:
They said good-bye to each other, one to go home, the other to go to the bookstore. (=They said good-bye to each other, and then one went home, and the other went to the bookstore.)

3.n/代词+介词短语;
如:Mary was sitting near the fire,her back towards the door. (=Mary was sitting near the fire, and her back was towards the door.)

4.n/代词+形容词;
如:An air accident happened to the plane,nobody alive.(=An air accident happened to the plane, and nobody was alive.)

5.n/代词+副词;
如:He put on his sweater ,wrong side out. (=He put on his sweater, and the wrong side was out.)

6.n/代词+名词
如:Two hundred people died in the accident, many of them children.(=Two hundred people died in the accident,and many of them were children.)

▶语法功能
以上就是独立主格结构常见的几种形式,下面我们来看一下独立主格结构在句子中的语法功能--表示时间、原因、条件、伴随或是补充说明情况等。
一、表示时间
The meeting being over, all of us went home. (=When the meeting was over, all of us went home.) 开完会后我们都回家了。

二、表示条件
The condition being favorable, he may succeed. (=If the condition is favorable, he may succeed.)若条件有利,他或许能成功。

三、表示原因
There being no taxis, we had to walk. (Because there was no taxis, we had to walk.)没有出租车,我们只好步行。

四、表示伴随情况
Almost all metals are good conductors,silver being the best of all. (Almost all metals are good conductors, and silver is the best of all.)几乎所有的金属都是良导体,而银则是最好的导体。

五.表示补充说明
We redoubled our efforts, each man working like two.(=We redoubled our efforts, and each man works like two.) 我们加倍努力,一个人干两个人的活。

以上就是独立主格结构常见的几种形式以及所具有的句法功能,希望本文对独立主格结构的讲解能够帮助大家在考研英语阅读中快速识别这一语法现象,并弄清它在句中的语法功能,从而正确理解和翻译文章。



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