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考研英语阅读精选(76)

2015-07-23    来源:新东方    【      托福雅思口语高分过

考研英语阅读精选(76)

Various accounts have traced the “Big Apple” expression to Depression-Era sidewalk apple vendors, a Harlem night club and a popular 1930s dance known as the “Big Apple.” One fanciful version even links the name with a notorious 19th-century procuress!

In fact, it was the jazz musicians of the 1930s and ‘40s who put the phrase into more or less general circulation. If a jazzman circa 1940 told you he had a gig in the “Big Apple,” you knew he had an engagement to play in the most coveted venue of all, Manhattan, where the audience was the biggest, hippest, and most appreciative in the country.

The older generation of jazzmen specifically credit Fletcher Henderson, one of the greatest of the early BigBand leaders and arrangers, with popularizing it, but such things are probably impossible to document. Be that as it may, the ultimate source actually was not the jazz world but the racetrack.

As Damon Runyon (among many others) cheerfully pointed out, New York in those days offered a betting man a lot of places to go broke. There were no fewer than four major tracks nearby, and it required no fewer than three racing journals to cover such a lively scene—The Daily Racing Form (which still survives on newsstands today) and The Running Horse and The New York Morning Telegraph (which do not)—and the ultimate credit for marrying New York to its durable catchphrase goes to columnist John J. FitzGerald who wrote for the Telegraph for over 20 years.
Despite its turf-related origins, by the 1930s and ‘40s, the phrase had become firmly linked to the city’s jazzscene. “Big Apple” was the name both of a popular night club at West 135th Street and Seventh Avenue in Harlem and a jitterbug-style group dance that originated in the South, became a huge phenomenon at Harlem‘s great Savoy Ballroom and rapidly spread across the country. (Neat cultural footnote: the great African-American cinema pioneer Oscar Micheaux liked to use the Big Apple as a venue for occasional screenings of his latest feature film or documentary.)

A film short called The Big Apple came out in 1938, with an all-Black cast featuring Herbert “Whitey” White‘s Lindy Hoppers, Harlem’s top ballroom dancers in the Swing Era. In a book published the same year, bandleader Cab Calloway used the phrase “Big Apple” to mean “the big town, the main stem, Harlem.” Anyonewho loved the city would have readily agreed with Jack FitzGerald: “There‘s only one Big Apple. That’s New York.”

The term had grown stale and was in fact generally forgotten by the 1970s. Then Charles Gillett, head of the New York Convention & Visitors Bureau, got the idea of reviving it. The agency was desperately trying to attract tourists to the town. Mayor John Lindsay had dubbed “Fun City,” but which had become better-known for its blackouts, strikes, street crime and occasional riots. What could be a more wholesome symbol of renewal than a plump red apple?

The city‘s industrial-strength campaign was launched toward the end of the Lindsay administration in 1971, complete with a cheerful Big Apple logo in innumerable forms (lapel pins, buttons, bumper stickers, refrigerator magnets, shopping bags, ashtrays, ties, tie tacks, “Big Apple” T-shirts, etc.).

Apparently Gillett was on to something, because at this writing, over 35 years later, the campaign he launched—it won him a Tourism Achievement award in 1994, by the way—is still going strong.

1. Read the first paragraph and then choose the correct one.
[A] “Big Apple” is a name of New York.
[B] There are many reasons for the name “Big Apple”……
[C] People are likely to call New York City “Big Apple”
[D] The name “Big Apple” is a name of New York City in the history.
2. According to the author, what‘s the reason for the name “Big Apple”?
[A] He thought that the name “Big Apple” could not be traced as many people‘s saying.
[B] He thought that the name “Big Apple” was something about jazz musicians.
[C] He thought that initially the name “Big Apple”was a name for Manhattan, not for New York City.
[D] He thought that the name “Big Apple” was named by jazz musicians.
3. According to Cab Calloway‘s book, what’s the meaning of the phrase “Big Apple”?
[A] A name of club in his book.
[B] A name of drama mentioned in his book.
[C] It meant the big town, the main stem, Harlem.
[D] It was just a name and had no means.
4.How did they revive the name “Big Apple” by the 1970s?
[A] By announced a new slogan.
[B] By announce that a plump red apple is a symbol of health.
[C] By put an end to New York‘s occasional riots.
[D] By put an end to New York‘s street crimes.
5.What‘s the industrial-strength campaign’s effect which was launched toward the end of the Lindsay administration in 1971?
[A] It led to a trend of widely used of the phrase “Big Apple”。
[B] It made the phrase “Big Apple” have new meanings.
[C] The campaign is good for the reviving of the name “Big City”。
[D] The campaign lead to the name‘s widely use which was good for its reviving.

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