用户名: 密码: 验证码:    注册 | 忘记密码?
首页|听力资源|每日听力|网络电台|在线词典|听力论坛|下载频道|部落家园|在线背单词|双语阅读|在线听写|普特网校
您的位置:主页 > 英语考试 > 考研英语 >

完形填空常见五种逻辑关系

2015-11-18    来源:万学    【      托福雅思口语高分过

 从完型填空的命题形式来看,每个空都不是孤立存在的,而是处在一整篇文章的大背景之中的。从这个角度来说,完型文章实际上是由已知信息和未知信息构成。通过相关已知信息提供的线索进行分析总结,结合选项定位出答案,这就是完型解题的基本方法。而相关已知信息一般在上下句之中,而上下句之间往往有明显的逻辑关系,因此熟练把握这种逻辑关系就成为解题的关键所在。

逻辑关系题是完型填空的重要考查点,且容易得分,故成为完型的重要得分点。完型中主要考察的五大逻辑关系为:对立关系、因果关系、并列关系、总分关系和递进关系。
 
一、对立关系
包括让步和转折关系,常见的标志词和短语:but, however, yet, on the contrary, by contrast, unfortunately, although, even though, nevertheless, in spite of, regardless of, anyhow, instead of, rather than, not…but等。
如2000年完型第41题:
He must store a large quantity of grain ___ consuming all his grain immediately.
[A]other than [B]as well as[C]instead of[D]more than
答案:C
解析:此处考查的是逻辑关系,需要根据空前和空后来判断。空前“储存了大量粮食”与空后“消耗所有粮食”形成对立关系,选C instead of。
 
二、因果关系
常用的标志词和短语有:because, for, since, as, thus, hence, therefore, so, so…that, such…that, in order that, consequently, accordingly, due to, thanks to, in response to, on account of, because of, considering that, seeing that, in that, now that, lest, as a result, for this reason等。
如2004年完型第34题:
More families consist of one parent households or two working parents, ___, children are likely to have less supervision at home.
[A]contrarily[B]consequently[C]similarly [D]simultaneously
答案:B
解析:此处考查的是逻辑关系,需要根据空前和空后来判断。空前“更多的家庭是单亲家庭或双工家庭”与空后“孩子在家很少受到监管”之间是因果关系,故所B consequently。
 
三、并列关系
常用的标志词和短语有:and, or, neither…nor, either…or, not only…but also, likewise, similarly, equally, in the same way, that is to say, as well as, same…as等。
如2004年完型第25题:
Theories focusing on the role of society suggest that children commit crimes in response to their failure to rise above their socioeconomic status, ___ as a rejection of middle-class values.
[A]or[B]but rather [C]but [D]or else
答案:A
解析:此处考查的是逻辑关系,需要根据空前和空后来判断。空前“没有成功提升社会经济地位”与空后“排斥中产阶级的价值观”都可能是“犯罪”的原因,故空前和空后之间是并列关系,选A or。
 
四、总分关系
常用的标志词和短语有:such as, for example, for instance, to illustrate, as an illustration, to take an example, more specifically等。
如2001年完型第31题:
The government is to ban payments to witnesses by newspapers seeking to buy up people involved in prominent cases ___ the trial of Rosemary West.
[A]as to [B]for instance [C]in particular[D]such as
答案:D
解析:此处考查的是逻辑关系,需要根据空前和空后来判断。空前“prominent cases”与空后“the trial of Rosemary West”是包含的关系,总体与部分的关系,可以选for instance和such as,但for instance后面不能直接加名词,such as后要直接加名词,故选D such as。
 
五、递进关系
常用的标志词和短语有:then, besides, additionally, in addition, furthermore, moreover, what is more等。
如1994年完型第46题:
Too often, careless use of words prevents a meeting of the minds of the speaker and listener. The words used by the speaker may stir up unfavorable reactions in the listener which interfere with his comprehension; hence, the transmission-reception system breaks down.
___, inaccurate or indefinite words may make it difficult for the listener to understand the message which is being transmitted to him.
[A]Moreover[B]However [C]Preliminarily [D]Unexpectedly
答案:A
解析:此处考查的是逻辑关系,需要根据空前和空后来判断。此空位于段首,需要考虑本段与上一段的逻辑关系,上一段提到“careless use of words”给交谈带来的障碍,空后则提到“inaccurate or indefinite words”理解信息造成的困难。前后是递进关系,故选择A moreover。
掌握了逻辑关系这一个法宝,完型得分就不再是问题。


顶一下
(0)
0%
踩一下
(0)
0%
了不起的盖茨比
跟着纪录片学英语
有声读物:公主日记
初学者最好资料
手机上普特 m.putclub.com 手机上普特
[责任编辑:katee]
------分隔线----------------------------
发表评论 查看所有评论
请自觉遵守互联网政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
用户名: 密码: 验证码:
  • 推荐文章
  • 资料下载
  • 讲座录音
普特英语手机网站
用手机浏览器输入m.putclub.com进入普特手机网站学习
查看更多手机学习APP>>