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攻克长难句翻译:顺藤摸瓜 理清句型结构

2016-04-14    来源:万学    【      托福雅思口语高分过

 英译汉涉及到两种语言的应用能力,因此需要对英汉两种语言的特点有个总体认识,特别是英语重形合,汉语重意合的特点。英语重形合,主要是指无论多么复杂的英语句子,都是通过一些语法手段和逻辑手段连接起来的“象葡萄藤一样”的结构, 因而英语多长句。考研翻译中的所有句子基本上都是结构复杂的长难句,理清句子结构层次就显得至关重要。

 
考研英语翻译可分三步走:
 
第一步:划分结构,理清句式;
第二步:转换词义,组织语言;
第三步:调整语序,润色文字。
 
划分结构时,需要对句子进行拆分,而拆分点包括以下几种:
(1) 标点:
(2) 并列连词:and, or, but, yet, for等
(3) 从属连词:
 
状语从句连接词(when, as, since, until, before, after, where, because, since, thought, although, so that, ...等)
 


名词性从句(that, whether/if等从属连词,who, whom, whose, what, which, whatever, whichever等连接代词和when, where, how, why等连接副词)
 
定语从句(who, which, that, whom, whose等关系代词和when, why, where等关系副词)
 
(4) 不定式、分词、介词短语
 
【真题例句1】
This trend began during the Second World War, when several governments came to the conclusion that the specific demands that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen in detail.
 
【句子拆分】
拆分点参考:并列连词、从属连词、介词、不定式、分词、标点
 
This trend began //during the Second World War, //when several governments came to the conclusion //that the specific demands //that a government wants to make of its scientific establishment cannot generally be foreseen //in detail.
 
【参考译文】
这种趋势始于第二次世界大战期间,当时一些国家的政府得出结论:政府向科研机构提出的具体要求通常是无法详尽预见的。
 
【真题例句2】
Of course, some regulation is inevitable and undoubtedly necessary, but a free and democratic society functions best when it leaves the resolution of its ethical quandaries to the reasoned judgment of its citizens rather than the regulatory authority of the government.
 
【句子拆分】
拆分点参考:标点,并列连词,从属连词
 
Of course,// some regulation is inevitable and undoubtedly necessary, //but a free and democratic society functions best //when it leaves the resolution of its ethical quandaries to the reasoned judgment of its citizens rather than the regulatory authority of the government.
 
【参考译文】
当然,某些规定是不可避免并且是必需的,但是只有当社会让民众通过自己的理智判断而非政府管制去解决道德难题时,一个自由民主的社会才能最大限地发挥其功能。


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