为了让学生们在开始工作之前就对口译的几大应用领域都有接近实际的经 历，知道需要如何准备，如何应付，本教材36个练习单元的内容全部采用政府政策宣传讲话，高级官员对外讲话，中国和英国的招商推介，以及英、美大公司的介 绍。这些都是实际口译工作中需求增长最快、最需要专业技能的领域。
（英）林超伦， 自1995年以来，林超伦先生一直担任英国女王、首相和议会上下两院领导人与中国高层领导人的会谈口译。他曾于1998年和2003年两次陪同布莱尔首相 访华，并且以英国政府译员的身份，参加接待了近年来所有访问英国的中国领导人。英国主要对华组织英中贸易协会、英国文化委员会、英中友好协会以及英国著名 的公司和组织也多次聘请他担任重大活动的口译。 林超伦先生还负责英国首相府和外交部的文件翻译，并经常为各大公司翻译宣传资料、广告及品牌、法律和技术文件。林超伦先生以其优秀的翻译质量和丰富的口译 经验在口译界享有良好的声誉。
Traditionally HM Treasury, along with the Bank of England, has been responsible for deciding all aspects of the UK's economic and financial policy. Following the 1997 election, in which the Labor Party came to power, the macroeconomic policy framework has been reformed. The aim of this reform is to help provide a framework for improved macroeconomic stability and economic growth.
I would like to explain the key features of the UK economic policy framework, identify the key institutions, their leaders and their main responsibilities. There are three main institutions. The first is HM Treasury which is responsible for the overall economic framework and for fiscal policy in particular. It is led by the Chancellor, Gordon Brown who is an elected politician.
He is supported by 4 junior ministers with specific responsibilities, who are also elected politicians. The Ministers receive advice from three main sources: civil servants, political advisers. And for some specific projects, business leaders also prepare advice. Fiscal policy is decided through two main processes: the budget and the spending review process.
The budget is presented each spring to Parliament. It sets out tax policy for the year. Since 1997 there has also been a pre-budget report. This explains progress and suggests some ideas for discussion. Later in the Spring Budget a decision is made. Spending policy is decided every three years. There are two main elements of spending policy. Both are decided at the same time.
One, the amount of money which each department receives and two, using this money, targets each department will achieve. For example for the Education Department a target for how many children pass exams. The second main institution is the Bank of England. It is led by someone non-political; at the moment, Eddie George. In 1997 it was given full independence to set interest rates. A committee, which includes a Treasury civil servant, makes the decision.
The level of interest rates is set in order to achieve a certain rate of inflation. This target rate is decided by the Chancellor. Therefore although the bank can decide the level of interest rates without any interference, the macroeconomic position is guided by an elected politician who is responsible to the country. The Bank also deals in the foreign exchange market.
Finally, the Financial Services Authority is responsible for monitoring and regulating the financial services industry. It has four main aims. One, maintaining confidence in the UK financial system. They supervise stock exchanges. Two, promoting public understanding of the financial system. They help consumers to become informed consumers, so that they can manage their financial affairs more effectively.
Three, securing the right degrees of protection for consumers. They monitor how firms and individuals are meeting standards. Where serious problems arise they investigate and, if appropriate, discipline or prosecute those that have violated rules. Four, helping to reduce financial crime. Their work focuses on three main types of financial crime: money laundering; fraud, and criminal market misconduct such as insider dealing.
First of all, I would like to welcome you to this presentation. As you know, China has become a member of the WTO. In accordance with the agreement, China will gradually lift its restrictions on the telecommunications infrastructure market and the value-adding market, allowing foreign companies to invest directly in China or to set up joint ventures.
The telecommunications market in China has enormous potentials. The mobile phone market alone will be worth no less than 150 billion yuan. It is estimated that the telecommunications industry, the telecommunications infrastructure network and user equipment, just the three of them combined, will be worth at least 1,500 billion yuan by 2005. The growth potential of the market can be seen in many ways.
One, the number of telecommunications users continues to grow. Every year, we need to provide a large amount of user equipment for new users. Not only that, existing users need to upgrade their equipment too. The growth of users in turn requires networks and the infrastructure to expand, upgrade and improve, driving the demand for network equipment and the construction of network-related facilities.
Two, as telecommunications is a very profitable business, some non-telecommunication companies are also itching to have a piece of the action. Companies in the value-adding and computer network business are particularly keen to enter the telecommunications market. Further liberalization will bring opportunities to these companies. This will make it a new area for foreign investment in the very near future.
Three, telecommunication technology is developing fast. New technology and new equipment are introduced all the time. The international telecommunications manufacturing industry is attracted by relatively high quality and yet cheap labor in China. The manufacturing of telecommunications user equipment and network equipment in China is beginning to show its supremacy. As telecom and network facilities continue to develop and upgrade, there will be numerous opportunities in manufacturing.
Four, after several stages of reform, there are now China Unicom, China Railcom, China Telecom, China Netcom, China Mobile and China Satellite, the six main players. They are all keen to become stronger, keen to attract foreign investment, offering foreign capital a fast-track entry into the Chinese market.
The telecommunications industry in China has accumulated fast capital for over a decade. It's highly profitable and will provide sufficient finance for joint ventures. In 2005, investment in telecommunications infrastructure and network facilities in China will exceed 250 billion yuan. That includes not only new equipment and new facilities, but also the maintenance and repair of existing equipment.
Of course, the lifting of control will take place in stages. But there will be fewer and fewer restrictions. Many people are describing the telecommunications market in China as a goldmine for foreign investment. In the past decade, foreign investment in China's telecommunications market has been richly rewarded. So, I hope you won't hold back any more. When the market is completely open, the best opportunities may have been snatched up by others.
Your Excellencies, distinguished guests, my lords, ladies and gentlemen, it is with great pleasure that I welcome you tonight to this magnificent castle. We warmly welcome you and your distinguished delegation to Wales. Wales is a small country compared with China. However, the Welsh people have made a significant contribution to the development of the United Kingdom and to the part the UK has played throughout the world.
Welsh companies make an important contribution to the United Kingdom economy. Some are represented here this evening. Many already trade with China. Many more would like to do so. This is one aspect of the growing relationship between our two countries. China is a focal point for trade and investment from Wales. Wales' exports to China are valued at over ￡250 million. It's good, but not good enough. I would encourage Welsh companies to do better.
I would also ask you, Mr. Chairman, to help increase the awareness of Wales among Chinese companies, particularly among Chinese companies that are considering their first move into Europe. Fr many years, Wales has been one of the most popular destinations for foreign investment in Europe. Investors in Wales have brought over ￡12 billion into the country and continue to reinvest once established.
Investors are not limited to US and Europe. Many companies from the Far East have chosen to establish their European operations here. Our Welsh Development Agency has set up an office in China. It demonstrates our commitment to your country. Meanwhile, Welsh companies are increasingly focused on outward investment and establishing joint ventures with partners in China. China's accession to the World Trade Organization will present new opportunities for both our economies.
Developing special relationships with China is something to which we attach great importance, not only through trade but in other areas such as science, education and justice. Recently, the Welsh Science Mission visited China. The visit raised Wales' profile with the Chinese scientific community. It also established an exchange scheme in which Welsh scientists will benefit.
The warm reception the delegation received in China was a clear signal of the highly productive relationship which Wales and China have developed. During the visit, we signed a Memorandum of Understanding with our Chinese counterparts in the scientific community. This will encourage and facilitate greater scientific co-operation between China and Wales. I understand that tomorrow morning; there will be several working group meetings to explore other areas of common interest. I look forward to receiving their report in due course.
Mr. Chairman, as you are aware, there has been contact at ministerial level. Not long ago, we were delighted to receive a visit from his Excellency Mr. Wen Jiabao. As you know already, his visit was a great success. In return, our Deputy First Minister has just accepted a generous invitation to lead a delegation to China later this year. They will be visiting Beijing, Shanghai and Guangzhou. They are looking forward to the visit.
These visits are clear signals of the highly productive relationship which Wales and China have developed. Judging by the crowds that have gathered here tonight, I am very confident that the relationship will continue to grow. Thank you for taking the time to include a visit to Wales in your busy and demanding programme. We are honored by your presence here this evening and would ask you to take back with you the warmest good wishes from the people of Wales and the United Kingdom. May I now propose a toast.