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技能:高考英语阅读遇生词怎么办?

2015-09-22    来源:英语口语老师冠平    【      托福雅思口语高分过

技能:高考英语阅读遇生词怎么办?

词义猜测题主要考查考生根据文章内容和所学知识推测词义的能力,包括考查生词词义或熟词新义,或是一些短语的引申意义或是一句话的含义。近几年的高考阅读理解题中,词义猜测类题越来越受到命题者的青睐,这就要求广大考生多多练习。

推测生词或短语的意义
阅读理解题中所设置的词义猜测类题多是对生词、短语、指示代词的猜测。一方面,命题者要求考生所猜测的单词或短语可能是已学过的或是考生较熟悉的,但高考所考查的是不太常见的意思;另一方面命题者要求考生所猜测的单词或短语可能是考生没有学过的。此时,对单词或短语的猜测不要停留在字面上,要根据语境来判断。考生可以通过构词法知识分析生词词义,或通过上下文尤其是生词所在的句子以及其前后两句话猜测词义。还可以通过联想进行推测,即回想已知词汇中是否存在拼写与该生词类似的词。常用的几种猜词方法如下:

1.利用副词或连词的转折、因果等关系有些词虽然不能直接猜测出其意义,但在上下文中能找到一些与之具有对比关系的[JP3]词,通过了解这些词的意义,就可以推断出所考查词的意思。考生通过这种对比关系,就很容易猜出生词的词义了。还可以通过近义词或反义词提供的信息猜测生词的词义。

俗话说,"有因必有果,有果必有因"。根据原因可以预测结果,根据结果也可以找出原因。如because,
since与as是连接原因状语从句的从属连词;so是连接表示结果状语从句的连词;so...that与such...that中的that是连接结果状语从句的连词。当这些信息词出现在有生词的句子中,考生通过因果关系,依据已知部分就能猜出生词的词义。

2.构词法(此法亦是记忆单词之妙法)
合成法。合成词是由两个或两个以上的单词构成的。遇到这类生词时可根据合成法来猜测词义。

英语的合成词有合成形容词、合成名词等。
合成形容词的构成方法如下:
(1)形容词+现在分词,如good-looking好看的;
(2)副词+现在分词,如hard-working辛勤的,工作努力的;
(3)名词+现在分词,如peace-loving爱好和平的;
(4)名词+过去分词,如state-owned国有的。
合成名词的常见构成方式有:
(1)名词+名词,如silkworm蚕;
(2)形容词+名词,如shorthand速记;
(3)现在分词+名词,如waiting room候车室,sleeping pill安眠药;
(4)动词+名词,如pickpocket扒手。
派生法。派生法,即在词根的基础上加上前缀、后缀,便可构成另一单词。只要掌握了词根和前后缀的意义,就可猜测出它们组成的新词的词义。

(1)表示否定意义的前缀常用的有dis-, il-, im-, in-, ir-, mis-,
non-,
un-等,在单词的前面加这类前缀常构成与该词意义相反的新词。如appear出现→disappear消失,correct正确的→incorrect不正确的。

(2)构成名词的后缀常用的有-ence(表示行动或状况),-er/-or(从事某事的人);-ese(……国的人);-ess(女……,雌……)等。如differ不同于→difference区别,write写→writer作家,Japan日本→Japanese日本人,act表演→actress女演员。

(3)构成动词的后缀常用的有-en(使成为,变得);-fy(使……化);-ize(成为)等。如dark→darken变黑,beauty→beautify美化,pure→purify净化,real→realize意识到。

中学英语中常见的前缀和后缀:
super-(超级,上层);
inter-(在……之间);
-able(能……的);
mini-(小的,短的);
micro-(微小的);
re-(再,重新);
sub-(分支,在……下面);
co-(共同);post(后);
pre-(先于);
trans-(超越,进入);
under-(在……之下,不足);
-hood(……的状态);
-ish(有……性质的,有点……的);
-scope(……镜);ship(资格,权力,性质);
-some(易于……的);
-wards(向……);
mis-(误,错);
un-(不,非);
in-(不,非);
im-(不,非);
dis-(不,非,相反);
non-(无,没有);
-less(没有,无);
anti-(反,对立面);
Sino-(中国的)。
转化法。转化法指在词形不变的情况下,一个单词由一种词性转换成另一种词性。如better是good或well的比较级形式,意为"较好的",而转化为动词后则意为"胜过,超过";down作副词时其词义为"在下面",转化为动词后则意为"击倒"。由此可见,掌握一定的构词法知识,考生就可以很容易猜出词义。

3.利用文中的定义、例子或上下文猜测词义
许多生词可以在文中找到相关的解释或定义,常见的一些标志性词有that is, mean, like等。也可以利用标点符号,如破折号,或者利用同位语理解词义。有时文中出现一些结论性的词汇,然后通过举例的方式对所列词汇进行具体的例证说明。做题时,考生可以通过作者所列举的具体词汇分析其共同点,抓住其共性,推测出所给词汇的意义;有时候考生需要结合上下文的语境获取答案。

4.经验、常识法
在阅读的过程中,如遇到生词,考生有时还可以根据自身的直接或间接的经验,或运用自己已有的常识将其推测出来。比如了解一些英美国家的天文地理、风俗习惯、宗教信仰、社会制度等,可以帮助考生很好地理解文章。

举个例子
下面列举几个例子,让我们看看高考真题中是如何猜测词义的
例 I grew up in a house where the TV was seldom turned on and with one wall in my bedroom entirely lined with bookshelves, most of mychildhood was spent on books I could get hold of. In fact, I grew up thinking of reading as natural as breathing and books unbelievably powerful in shaping perspectives (观点) by creating worlds we could step into, take part in and live in.With this unshakable belief, I, at fourteen, decided to become a writer. Here too, reading became useful. Every writer starts off knowing that he has something to say, but being unable to find the right ways to say it. He has to find his ownvoiceby reading widely and discovering which parts of the writers he agrees or disagrees with, or agrees with so strongly that it reshapes his own world. He cannot write without loving to read, because only through reading other people’s writing can one discover what works, what doesn’t and, in the end, together with lots of practice, what voice he has.
...

42. The underlined word "voice" in the second
paragraph most probably means "".
A. an idea
B. a sound quality
C. a way of writing
D. a world to write about
解析C。词义猜测题。根据文中的"Every writer starts off knowing that
he has something to say, but being unable to find the right ways to say it. He
has to find his ownvoiceby reading widely..."可以推断出voice在语法功能和语义上与the right ways相似,所以该词的意思是"写作方式"。

例 I had always traveled to Malaysia by plane or car, so this was the first time I was on a train. I did not particularlyrelishthelong train journey and had brought along a dozen magazinesto read and reread. I looked about the train. There was not one familiar face. I sighed and sat down to read myEconomics.
...
From then on my journey became interesting. I threw
my magazines into the waste basket and decided to join in Malaysian life. Then everything came alive. The mountains seemed to speak to me. Even the trees were smiling. I stared at everything as if I was lookingat it for the first time....I looked forward to the return journey.

68. Which of the following words can best take the place of the word "relish" in the second paragraph?
A. choose B. enjoy C. prepare for D. carry on
解析B。词义猜测题。根据语境" I had always traveled to Malaysia by plane or car, so this was the first time I was on a train. I did not..."以及下文中的"From then on my journey became interesting."可推测"relish"意为"喜欢",与enjoy同义。故答案为B。
例 I hated dinner parties. But I decided to give them anothershotbecause I’m in London. And my friend Mallery invited me. And because dinner parties in London are very different from those back in New York. There, "I’m having a dinner party" means: "I’m booking a table for 12 at a restaurant you can’t afford and we’llbe sharing the cheque evenly, no matter what you eat." Worse, in Manhattan there is always someone who leaves before the bill arrives. They’ll throw down cash, half of what they owe, and then people like me, who don’t drink, end up paying even more. But if I try to use the same trick, the hostess will shout: "Where are you going?" And it’s not like I can say I have somewhere to go: everyone knows I have nowhere to go.
...

60. What does the word "shot" in Paragraph 1
probably mean?
A. Choice. B. Try. C. Style. D. Goal.
解析B。词义猜测题。根据文章首段的前四句话可知,"我"原来不喜欢派对,但是"我"决定试试,因为"我"现在是在伦敦。结合语境可知,此处shot与try同义,表示"尝试"。



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