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专四语法考点:定语从句

2015-03-26    来源:新东方    【      托福雅思口语高分过

2015专四语法考点:定语从句

 

关系代词:which(指sth 作主语或宾语),that(指sb或sth 作主语或宾语),who(指sb作主语或宾语),whom(指sb作宾语),whose(指sb或sth,作定语),as(指sb,sth 作主语或宾语);注意: 做宾语的时候,关系代词可以省略。

关系副词:when(指时间 on which),where(指地点 at which),why(指原因 for which)

 

考点1. 先行词为人时引导词who和that

(1) 只能用who不用that:1)当先行词为one(s), anyone, those时;2)当先行词为人称代词时。

(2) 只能用that不用who:1)当主句已经出现who时。2)关系代词在定语从句中作表语时。

1. He is quite worn out from years of hard work. He is not the man _that______ he was twenty years ago. 2003

A. which     B. that          C. who          D. whom

 

考点2. 先行词为物时引导词that和which

(1) 只能用that不用which:1)先行词为much, little, few, nothing, none, anything, no, all等不定代词。2)先行词既有人又有物。3)先行词被形容词的最高级或序数词修饰。4)先行词被the very, the only, the last, just, all, any, every, no等修饰。5)关系代词在从句中作表语。6) 在疑问词who、which、what开头的句子中。7) 主句是there be句型。

1. I was very interested in _all that____ she told me.2009

A. all that   B. all which   C. all what   D. That

2. Firms that use computers have found that the number of staff that__is needed for quality control can be substantially reduced. 2000

A. whose     B. as       C. what       D. that

3. The team can handle whatever _that needs handling____. (1997)

A. that needs handling   B. which needs handling   C. it needs handling   D. needs to be handled

4. There is no one in the world _that never makes mistakes_____.1991

A. that ever made mistakes      B. that has ever made mistakes

C. that never makes mistakes    D. that sometimes makes mistakes

(2) 只能用which不用that: 1)定语从句中的介词前置时关系代词只能用which; 2)引导非限制性定语从句时只能用which,其先行词可是一个词, 也可是整个主句或主句的某一部分。

1. They overcame all the difficulties and completed the project two months ahead of time, which_____is something we had not expected. 2003

A. which    B. it      C. that     D. what

2. We’ve just installed two air-conditioners in our apartment, which____should make great differences in our life next summer.2002

A. which      B. what      C. that       D. They

3. The physicist has made a discovery, which I think is_____of great importance to the progress of science and technology.1997

A. I think which is   B. that I think is   C. which I think is  D. which I think it is   

    

考点3:介词+关系代词 (which/ whom)

(1) 关系代词前介词的确定方法:定语从句的动词与先行词的逻辑关系,或者从句的动词、形容词的习惯性搭配。

1. The party, at which __I was the guest of honour, was extremely enjoyable.2006

A. by which    B. for which    C. to which    D. at which

2. I’ve never been to Lhasa, but that’s the city _which I like to visit mostly______.1999

A. I’d most like to visit     B. which I like to visit mostly  C. where I like to visit  D. I’d like much to visit

3. The Clarks haven’t decided yet which hotel_to stay_at_____. 1998

A. to stay   B. is to stay    C. to stay at     D. is for staying

4.I have never been to London, but that is the city _which I like to visit  mostly_______.1997

A. where I like to visit most      B. I'd most like to visit.

C. which I like to visit mostly    D. where I'd like most to visit

(2) 非限制性定语从句中,表示先行词的一部分时,可用“数词/代词+of+关系代词”的结构;

(3) Whose从句可转换为“ of +关系代词”型,whose的先行词指物时, 可用of which代替,

但词序不同,即whose+n=the +n + of which =of which + the + n.

1. Above the trees are the hills, _whose______ magnificence the river faithfully reflects on the surface.2003

A. where    B. of whose      C. whose       D. which

 

考点4:关系副词的运用

⑴ 先行词为“时间的名词”用when

1. She remembered several occasions in the past _when___she had experienced a similar feeling.1998

A. which     B. before      C. that        D. when

⑵ 先行词为“表示地点的名词”(case, point, situation, condition, scene, stage, country, room, house, hotel, museum, school, street等)用where

1. Have you ever been in a situation _where____ you know the other person is right yet you cannot agree with him?2002

A. by which       B. that        C. in where      D. Where

2. This company has now introduced a policy _where____pay rises have related to performance at work. 1996

A. which     B. where     C. whether      D. what

⑶ 先行词为“表示原因的名词”why:reason+why…(表示原因的名词只有一个)

 

考点5:as与which引导的定语从句

as 放在句首句中都可以,which 必需放在句中,但下列情况多用as: 1) 关系代词引导的定语从句居句首时。2) 当与such as或the same连用时,一般用as。3) 当主句和从句之间存在着逻辑上的因果关系时,关系词往往只用which。

1. Only take these clothes _as are_____really necessary.1994

A. as were      B. as they are    C. as they were     D. as are

2. As_____ is often the case with a new idea, much preliminary activity and optimistic discussion produced no concrete proposals. 1994

A. That        B. It       C. This      D. As

 

三大注意:

1. the way 做先行词时,定语从句可由that, in which 引导或不用引导词。

2. 定语从句中主谓一致问题:从句中的动词在人称和数方面应该与它的先行词保持一致。

He is one of the teachers who know English well.

He is the only one of the teachers who knows English well.(特殊)

3.疑问句的解题思路:先把疑问句还原成陈述句,然后判断谁是先行词,再看关系词在定语从句中所充当的成分,最后确定正确答案。

(新东方)



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