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专四语法考点:名词从句

2015-03-27    来源:新东方    【      托福雅思口语高分过

一、名词从句的本质:三种句子充当具体成分
1、用陈述句作成分(主语、宾语、表语、同位语)时,需要在陈述句首加that来引导。
2、用一般疑问句作成分时,需要先将疑问句的倒装语序换成正常语序,然后再句首加上whether或if (if只用在宾语从句中)来引导,以保留原句疑问意义。
3、用特殊疑问作成分时,只需要将疑问句的倒装语序换成正常的疑问语序。
4、引导名词从句的常用连词:

 

二、常见考点:
考点1:主语从句
(1) that引导主语从句句型:
that引导的主语从句直接放在句首的较少,更常见的是用it作形式主语置于句首,而将that引导的主语从句放在句末,因此,下列都是常见的主语从句句型:
1) It is +过去分词+ that从句:It is reported that…  It is believed that…  It is generally thought that… It should be noted that…  It has been found that…  It must be pointed out that…
同样可用的动词还有: say, expect, know, estimate, forecast
2) It is +形容词+ that从句:It is clear that…  It is likely that…  It is possible that…  It is natural that… It is certain that…  It is strange that…  It is fortunate that…  It is necessary that…
3) It is +名词短语+ that从句:It is a pity that… It is a fact that… It is good news that…  It is a good thing that…  It is no wonder that…  It is a shame that…  It is an honor that…  It is common knowledge that…  It is my belief that…  It is a miracle that…
4) It +不及物动词+that 从句:It seems that…; It follows that…; It happens that…; It turns out that…; It comes about that…
5) 其他结构:It dawns upon/ on sb that…; It occurs to sb that…; It makes no difference that…; It doesn’t need to be bothered that…; It is of little consequence that…

(2) whether 及连接代词或连接副词引导主语从句一般放在句首。

考点2:宾语从句
(1) that在宾语从句中省略的问题:一般来讲,that引导宾语从句时,可将that省去。但若是几个宾语从句并列使用,则连词that不可省去。

(2) If/whether
1)if 一般只用于引导宾语从句,而whether可引导包括宾语从句在内的其他名词从句。
2)if不和or not直接连用,即一般不说if or not。但可以说if…or not。而whether没有此限制。

(3) what/whatever/whoever/whomever
    whoever是人称代词的主格形式,一般在句子中作主语;whomever是人称代词的宾格形式,故一般作宾语。这两个词都等于the person that。what/whatever等于the thing(s) that。可以理解为“先行词+that”。

1. Whatever_____ the boss says, it is unreasonable to ask me to work overtime without pay.2009
A. Whatever B. Whenever C. Whichever D. However

2. The government has promised to do whatever____ lies in its power to ease the hardships of the victims in the flood stricken area. (2004)
A. however      B. whichever      C. whatever     D. wherever

3. She managed to save_what litter money__she could out of her wages to help her brother.2002
A. how little money  B. so little moneyC. such little money  D. what little money

4. After what___seemed an endless wait, it was her turn to enter the personnel manager’s office. (1999)
A. that      B. there      C. what      D. it

5. We can assign the task to _whoever____ is capable and trustworthy. (1994)
A. whomever   B. who    C. whom    D. Whoever
 
考点3:表语从句
(1) 表语从句通常是置于系动词,尤其是is后边。
1. Quality is _what___ counts most.2008
A. which   B. that    C. what   D. where

2. He’s _what is known___ as a “bellyacher” – he’s always complaining about some thing. (1999)
A. who is known   B. whom is known   C. what is known  D. which is known

(2) 名词reason后面的表语从句一般用that引导,而不用because.

考点4:同位语从句
(1) “名词+that +陈述句”句型:
同位语从句通常是用that引导,而很少用whether,if以及连接代词或连接副词引导。这是因为我们多是用陈述句来补充名词的内容,而很少用一般疑问句或特殊疑问句来补充名词的内容。

(2) no doubt+that/doubt+whether
1. There is no doubt _that___ the company has made the right decision on the sales project. (2001)
A. why     B. that     C. whether     D. when
(新东方)



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