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专四语法考点:主谓一致

2015-03-30    来源:新东方    【      托福雅思口语高分过

1) “就远原则”:在“A +(with, together with, along with, as well as, but, except, besides, like, including, rather than, more than, no less than)+B”结构中,谓语动词的单复数与之A一致。
1. Mr Wells, together with all the members of his family, _is leaving___ for Europe this afternoon.200
A. are to leave   B. are leaving    C. is leaving   D. Leave

2) 就近原则:neither…nor…, (either)…or…, not only…but also…, not…but…等并列结构作主语时采取就近原则:谓语动词的数由与其最接近的那个主语的数决定。
1. It is futile to discuss the matter further, because _neither you nor I am___ going to agree upon anything today.2003
A. neither you nor I are     B. neither you nor me is  C. neither you nor I am     D. neither me nor you are

2. Neither______of the twins was arrested, because I saw both at a party last night.2002
  A. None         B. Both        C. Neither      D. All
         
3) a/the number of+复数名词”作主语表示“…的数量”时,谓语动词用单数;表示“一些 / 许多…”时,谓语动词用复数。

4) more than one + n/ Many a + n/ Every A and every B / No A and no B/ one and a half +n 谓语动词用单数。
注意:more 复数名词+than one 用复数,More members than one are against your plan.

5) 由and连接的多个成分,若表示一种事物或一种概念时,用单数动词;若表示的是多个不同的概念时,则用复数动词。并列主语如果指的是同一个人、同一事物或同一概念时, 谓语动词用单数形式。如:bread and butter, bread and cheese, a knife and fork, a cart and horse, needle and thread, law and order, fish and chips, meat and potatoes

6) 若and连接两个并列主语,且and后面的名词有相关的副词(not, perhaps, particularly, even, too, likewise, as well等)修饰,则谓语动词形式与and前面的名词保持一致。因为此时句子的真正主语应是and前面的名词,此时and 与前面的名词之间常有逗号隔开。

7) 表达时间、金钱、距离、重量、长度、价值,算式的短语通常接动词的单数形式。

8) 如果主语由“the+形容词(或过去分词)”结构担任时, 若表示抽象概念,谓语用单数。表示一类人,则为复数概念,谓语用复数。

9) 由what引导的主语从句,谓语动词通常用单数;但所指的内容是复数意义时,谓语动词通常用复数.

10) people, police, cattle, militia是复数名词, 接动词复数形式。Peoples指民族。sheep , deer, fish , means, aircraft works单复数同形;  clothes +复数动词

11) 常见的表示成对概念的复数名词,如:pants, trousers, scissors, scales(天平),glasses, binoculars(双筒望远镜),spectacles, bifocals(双光眼镜)。谓语动词用复数。

12) 形式上是复数(词尾加s),但表示单数概念的词,谓语用单数。Works(工厂)、gallows(绞刑架)、politics, statistics, measles, diabetes。若politics, statistics不表示学科,而分别表示“政治观点”,“统计数据”时,则需要复数。
1. The statistics_prove__that living standards in the area have improved drastically in recent times.2006
A. proves     B. is proving    C. are proving     D. prove

13) the+最高级+of+n.复数+单数谓语

14) a+单数名词+or two作主语,谓语用单数。

15) 集合名词指整体时,用单数代词;指由不同的人组成的集合时,用复数代词。Audience, couple, family, public, class, crowd, government, staff, committee, group, team, crew, company集体名词:police, militia(民兵),cattle, people等总是接复数动词,而mankind, humanity接单数动词。
1. Our association, which has consistently pressed for greater employment opportunities for the disabled, will publish _its___ proposals in the near future.2008
A.their   B. our    C. his   D. Its

16) 书名、片名、格言、剧名、报名、国名等的复数形式,其谓语动词通常用单数形式。
1. All the President’s Men _remains_____ one of the important books for historians who study the Watergate Scandal.2007
A. remain     B. remains    C. remained    D. is remaining

17) “数量词+名词”结构的主谓一致

(新东方)



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