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2016英语专四语法重点解析(3)

2016-04-05    来源:新东方    【      托福雅思口语高分过

2016英语专四语法重点解析(3)

2016专四专八改革,专四语言知识部分总分为20分,题量减了10 题,但分值增加了5分,对专四考生来说是件好事,分值与阅读理解相等。考生们可以在词汇、短语语法知识上多多练习争取不扣分。从近13年的英语专四真题来 看,我们不难发现英语专业四级的语法与词汇考题主要是围绕11项语法要点:从属分句、非限定动词、虚拟语气、情态动词、限定词、句子成分、倒装、动词时 态、附加成分和强调句型。而考试的重点和难点则集中在考核考生对从属分句、非限定性动词、虚拟语气、情态动词和动词时态等语法的应用上。


结果状语从句常由so… that或such…that引导,掌握这两个句型,首先要了解so 和 such与其后的词的搭配规律。

so和 such结果状语从句其规律由so与such的不同词性决定。such 是形容词,修饰名词或名词词组,so 是副词,只能修饰形容词或副词。 so 还可与表示数量的形容词many, few, much, little连用,形成固定搭配。such+a/an+形容词+名=so+形容词+a/an+名 ( so many 已成固定搭配,a lot of 虽相当于 many,但 a lot of 为名词性的,只能用such搭配。)so…that与 such…that之间的转换既为 so与such之间的转换。例句:The boy is so young that he can't go to school.He is such a young boy that he can't go to school.

用法

结果状语从句的从句部分是补充说明主句中谓语动词发生的结果的,通常位于主句之后。结果从句中通常不用情态助动词,但must,can,could除外。such用在(形容词)名词之前;而so要用在形容词/副词之前,so或that有时会省略掉。以下逐一介绍高考中常见的引导结果状语从句的词:

1. so that可以引导目的状语从句, 也可以引导结果状语从句。例如:He worried so that he couldn’t sleep.他急得睡不着。(so that引导结果状语从句)It was very cold, so that the river froze.天气寒冷, 河水都结冰了。(so that引导结果状语从句)I came to the class early so that I could see the classmate beside me.我赶早来上课, 以便早点看到我旁边的同学。(so that引导目的状语从句)so+形容词+thatSome people were so moved by the sight that they began to cry.一些人对此情景如此感动,以致开始哭了出来。The wind was so strong that he could hardly move forward.风刮得如此猛烈,以致他几乎是寸步难行。so+副词+thatThe ball struck him so hard that he nearly fell into the water.球重重地打在了他身上,使他几乎落到水里去。so+形容词+a+单数名词+thatIt was so hot a day that they wanted to go swimming.天那么热,他们想去游泳。so+many/few(+复数名词)+thatThere are so many picture-story books that the boy won't leave.有那么多连环画书,小孩都不想离开了。so+much/little+单数不可数名词)+thatThere is so much contradictory advice about exercising that you become confused.对于锻炼有那么多互相矛盾的意见,以致都把你给弄糊涂了。He gave me so little time that it was impossible for me to finish the work on time.他给我的时间如此少,要我按时完成任务是不可能的。

2. 表示“如此……以致……”的“so...that...”和“such... that...”均可引导结果状语从句, 其中的such 是形容词, 修饰名词; so 是副词, 修饰形容词或副词, 具体的搭配形式是:(1)“so+adj./adv.+that”, “so+adj.(+a/an)+n.+that”;(2)“such(+a/an)(+adj.)+n.+that”。例如: He speaks so fast that no one can catch him. 他说话太快, 无人听得明白。There is so rapid an increase in population that a food shortage is caused. 人口增长如此迅速, 以致造成了粮食短缺。Our country has so much coal that she can export large quantities. 我们国家的煤炭非常丰富, 可以大量出口。(so与表示数量的代词many, few, much, little等连用已经形成固定搭配, 这些场合下不能换用such的对应结构表示)The shop sells so expensive goods that I want to buy nothing in it. 这家商店出售的货物价格昂贵, 以致我在里面不想购买任何东西。He’s such a good person that we mustn’t blame him. 他是这样好的人, 我们不能怪他。They are such fine teachers that we all hold them in great respect. 他们是非常好的老师, 我们对他们极为尊敬。It is such nice weather that I would like to go to the beach. 天气如此之好, 我想去海滩。如果结果状语从句的主语与主句的主语相同, 可用so (adj./adv.) as to取代该结果状语从句, 注意体会以下例句: The weather was bad, so as to make a good photo hard to take. 天气恶劣, 以致难以拍出来好照片。He was so kind as to phone for a taxi for the patient. 他是如此热心, 以至于他为病人打电话叫了出租车。How could you be so stupid as to believe him? 你怎么这么笨, 竟相信了他的话?在结果状语从句主从句主语一致的情况下,可省去从句主语,从句谓语变非谓语。这时,前面的so ...就要换一个形式来陈述。so是中性程度副词,如果从句是肯定句,那么so就要换为enough。如果从句是否定句,那么so就要换成too。要注意的是:enough只能在所修饰词的后面。例:He is so old that he can go to school alone.省略式为:He is old enough to go to school alone.



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