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美国文学复习:殖民主义时期的文学

2015-01-30    来源:网络    【      托福雅思口语高分过

第一部分  殖民主义时期的文学

一、时期综述 

1、清教徒采用的文学体裁:a、narratives 日记 b、journals 游记

2、清教徒在美国的写作内容:

1)their voyage to the new land 
2) Adapting themselves to unfamiliar climates and crops
3) About dealing with Indians 
4) Guide to the new land, endless bounty, invitation to bold spirit

3、清教徒的思想:

1)puritan want to make up pure their religious beliefs and practices 净化信仰和行为方式
2) Wish to restore simplicity to church and the authority of the Bible to the theology. 重建教堂,提供简单服务,建立神圣地位 
3)look upon themselves as chosen people, and it follow logically that anyone who challenged their way of life is opposing God's will and is not to be accepted. 认为自己是上帝选民,对他们的生活有异议就是反对上帝 
4)puritan opposition to pleasure and the arts sometimes has been exaggerated. 反对对快乐和艺术的追求到了十分荒唐的地步
5)religious teaching tended to emphasize the image of a wrathful God.强调上帝严厉的一面,忽视上帝仁慈的一面。

4、典型的清教徒: John Cotton & Roger William  他们的不同:John Cotton was much more concerned with authority than with democracy; William begins the history of religious toleration in America.

5、William的宗教观点:Toleration did not stem from a lack of religious convictions. Instead, it sprang from the idea that simply to be virtuous in conduct and devout in belief did not give anyone the right to force belief on others. He also felt that no political order or church system could identify itself directly with God. 行为上的德,信仰上的诚,并没有给任何人强迫别人该如何行事的权利。没有任何政治秩序和教会体制能够直接体现神本身的意旨。

6、英国最早移民到美国的诗人:Anne Bradstreet 

7、在殖民时期最好的清教徒诗人:the best of Puritan poets is Edward Tayor.

学习指南: 

1、Could you give a description of American Puritans?
关于美国清教徒的描绘:     

Like their brothers back in England, were idealists, believing that the church should be restored to the "purity" of the first-century church as established by Jesus Christ himself. To them religion was a matter of primary importance. They made it their chief business to see that man lived and thought and acted in a way which tended to the glory of God. They accepted the doctrine of predestination, original sin and total depravity, and limited atonement through a special infusion of grace from God, all that John Calvin, the great French theologian who lived in Geneva had preached. It was this kind of religious belief that they brought with them into the wildness. There they meaant to prove that were God's chosen people enjoying his blessings on this earth as in Heaven. 

2、Hard work, thrift, piety and sobriety were the Puritan values that dominated much of the earliest American writing.

3、The work of two writers, Anne Bradstreet & Edward Taylor, rose to the level of real poetry. 

4、The earliest settlers included Dutch, Swedes, Germans, French, Spaniards Italian, and Portuguese. 



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