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美国文学复习:时代背景

2015-02-02    来源:网络    【      托福雅思口语高分过

美国文学史复习2

一、美国的性质:  The war for Independence ended in the formation of a Federative bourgeois democratic republic - the United States of America. 联邦的资产阶级民主共和国--美利坚合众国。

二、代表作家: 
1、Benjamin Franklin 本杰明·富兰克林  1706-1790 
1)"Poor Richard's Almanac" 穷人查理德的年鉴 annual collection of proverbs 流行谚语集 
It soon became the most popular book of its kind, largely because of Franklin's shrewd humor, and first spread his reputation
2) Founded the Junto, a club for informal discussion of scientific, economic and political ideas. 建立了一个秘密俱乐部,讨论的主题是政治、经济和科学等时事方面的问题。 
3)established America's first circulating library, founded the college--University of Pennsylvania. 建立了美国第一个可租借的图书馆,还创办了一所大学——就是现在的宾夕法尼亚大学。 
4)first applied the terms "positive" and "negative" to electrical charges. 
5)As a representative of the Colonies, he tried in vain to counsel the British toward policies that would let America grow and flourish in association with England. He conducted the difficulty negotiations with France that brought financial and military support for  America in the war.作为殖民地的代表,他不断建议英国改变政策,使美国可以和英国一起发展、繁荣。他说服法国支持美国的独立战争。 
6)As an author he had power of expression, simplicity, a subtle humor, sarcastic.作为作家具有非凡的才能,表达简洁明了,幽默,讽刺天才、 
7)The Way to Wealth 致富之道      The Autobiography自传 18世纪美国唯一流传至今的自传

2、Thomas Paine 托马斯·佩因  1737-1809  "Great Common of Mankind" 最平凡的人
1)famous pamphlet "Common Sense"  著名的政治小册子《常识》 it boldly advocated a "Declaration for Independence", and brought the separatist agitation to a crisis. 拥护独立宣言,是分裂活动发展成最后危机。
2)"American Crisis" 《美国危机》,signed "Common Sense" (p31,第一段)  The Case of the Officers of Excise税务员问题;Common Sense常识;American Crisis美国危机;Rights of Man人的权利:Downfall of Despotism专制体制的崩溃;The Age of Reason理性时代 

3、Thomas Jefferson 托马斯·杰弗逊 
1)drafted the Declaration of Independence. 起草了独立宣言
2)与清教徒不同,主张追求幸福。All Men are created equal, that they are endowed by their Creator with certain unalienable Rights, that among these are Life, Liberty and the Pursuit of happiness. 人人生而平等,他们都从―造物主‖那边被赋予了某些不可转让的权利,其中包括生命权、自由权和追求幸福的权利。

4、Philip Freneau 菲利普·费瑞诺  poet and political journalist 诗人和政治方面的新闻记者

1)perhaps the most outstanding writer of the post-revolutionary period.
2)has been called the "Father of American Poetry" 美国诗歌之父  The Rising Glory of America蒸蒸日上的美洲;The British Prison Ship英国囚船;To the Memory of the Brave Americans纪念美国勇士-----同类诗中最佳;The Wild Honeysuckle野生的金银花;The Indian Burying Ground印第安人殡葬地

学习指南: 

1、Theology dominated the Puritan phase of American writing. Politics was the next great suject to command the attention of the best minds.
2、Freneau was neoclassical by training and taste ye romantic in essential spirit.



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