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2016年专八真题及参考答案:语言知识(网络版)

2016-03-23    来源:百度文库    【      托福雅思口语高分过

PART III    LANGUAGE USAGE                                                                                                                      [15 MIN]

The passage contains TEN errors. Each indicated line contains a maximum of ONE error. In each case, only ONE word is involved. You should proof-read the passage and correct it in the following way:

For a wrong word,

underline the wrong word and write the correct one in the blank provided at the end of the line.

For a missing word,

mark the position of the missing word with a “∧” sign and write the word you believe to be missing in the blank provided at the end of the line.

For an unnecessary word,

cross the unnecessary word with a slash “/” and put the word in the blank provided at the end of the line.

这是一篇关于跨文化交际的文章,原文如下。 

All social units develop a culture. Even in two-person relationships, a culture develops over time. In friendship and romantic relationships, for example, partners develop their own history, shared experiences, language patterns, rituals, habits, and customs that give that relationship a special character—a character that differentiates it in various ways from other relationships. Examples might include special dates, places, songs, or events that come to have a unique and important symbolic meaning for two individuals.

Thus, any social unit—whether a relationship, group, organization, or  society—develops a culture over time. While the defining characteristics—or combination of characteristics—of each culture are unique, all cultures share certain common functions.  The relationship between communication and culture is a very complex and intimate one.  First, cultures are created through communication; that is, communication is the means of human interaction through which cultural characteristics— whether customs, roles, rules, rituals, laws, or other  patterns—are created and shared. It is not so much that individuals set out to create a culture when they interact in relationships, groups, organizations, or societies, but rather that cultures are a natural by-product of social interaction. In a sense, cultures are the “residue” of social communication. Without  communication and communication media, it would be impossible to preserve and pass along cultural characteristics from one place and time to another. One can say, therefore, that culture is created, shaped, transmitted, and learned through communication. 


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