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【听力文摘】寄生蝇的耳朵给人类的启示

2014-06-03    来源:普特英语听力    【      美国外教 在线口语培训
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What We Can Learn From A Fly’s Ears

This may come as a surprise to you, but most flies don’t have the ability to hear. However, certain parasitic flies have a hearing system that is so exact in pinpointing a sound’s origin that it rivals the exceptional ears of owls and cats.

This fly’s superb hearing surprised scientists because its tiny body is too small to use the same kind of hearing system that larger animals use. And yet they discovered that the fly was using its hearing to locate the chirps of crickets in order to then deposit parasitic larvae onto the crickets’ bodies.

What they found was unlike any other known ear structure, this fly’s eardrums are connected by a bridge of stiff material. Vibrations that travel between the two eardrums enable the fly to pinpoint the origin of a sound as accurately as any other sound system we know of.

And what’s more, this fly’s exceptional hearing system is influencing microphone and hearing aid technology. For instance, it could lead to hearing aids that hide within a person’s ear canal and yet are able to gather sound primarily from the direction the listener is facing.


寄生蝇的耳朵给人类的启示

你或许会感到惊讶,但大多数蝇类其实并没有听觉能力。然而寄生蝇却拥有能够与猫头鹰和猫媲美的听觉系统,可以精确定位声音来源。

寄生蝇的这种超强听力让科学家十分吃惊,因为它的身躯太小,按常理来说应该无法像较大型动物那样使用同样的听觉系统。但是科学家们发现,寄生蝇可以通过自己的听觉定位蟋蟀的叫声,然后将寄生卵注入其体内。

科学家们发现寄生蝇的耳朵结构与其他生物不同,它们的耳膜由一种硬质材料链接。耳膜间的震动使寄生蝇能够定位声音来源,其效果堪比我们知道的任何其他声音系统那样精确。

不仅如此,寄生蝇超凡的听觉系统对扩音器和助听技术也能产生影响。比如,科学家可以借此研制出放在人类耳朵的助听设备,使其能够接收听者所面对方向的声音。

【本译文由普特网友 kevinde 提供】

PS:寄生蝇是双翅目寄蝇科的通称,幼虫专门寄在其他昆虫体内,因而得名。成虫具舐吸式口器,除舐吸植物的花蜜外,蚜虫、介壳虫或植物茎、叶所分泌的含糖物质都是它们喜好的食物。寄蝇科具有发达的后小盾片,可区别于双翅目昆虫中的所有其他各科。全世界约5200种。中国近500种。是农、林、果、菜害虫的寄生性天敌之一。



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