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2014-12-25    来源:煎蛋小学堂    【      美国外教 在线口语培训









here.Attachment,of two people's lips,KISSING.The average person will spend about 20,160 minutes of his or her life KISSING.
Hey 欢迎来到Vsauce 我是Micheal.二人嘴唇的亲密接触 就是“吻”,平均每人一生中亲吻的时间为20160分钟。

And the world record for the longest continuous kiss is 58hrs,35mins and 58secs,But why do we kiss?I mean if you think about it,it seems kind of weird,right? I mean,sure Today,kissing represents peace,respect,passion love,But when the first two people in human history KISSED.were they just kind of being gross?
世界持续接吻时间最长的纪录为58小时35分58秒,但是我们为什么要接吻?我的意思是 如果你曾经想过这个问题 它感觉有点奇怪 对吧?当然 今天吻是和平、尊敬、激情和爱情的象征。但是说到人类史上最先接吻的那两个人,他们是不是有点恶心呢?

Well,let's begin with what we do know,Kissing feels good,and it's good for you,A passionate kiss burns about 2-3 calories per minute,And releases epinephrine and norepinephrine into the blood making your heart pump faster.Kissing,more often,is correlated with a reduction of bad cholesterol and perceived stress.But these positive affects didn't become widespread by accident.
那么 先从我们知道的开始说吧,接吻感觉好好 并且对你也有好处,人激情热吻时每分钟消耗2-3卡路里能量,并会向血液中释放肾上腺素和降肾上腺素 使你的心跳加速,接吻常与降低胆固醇和减轻压力有关,但是这些积极效应分布面广并非巧合。

Why did brains and bodies that love kissing become so common?Well,a popular story holds that pacman's shape was inspired by the shape of a pizza with a slice missing,But Toru Iwatani,the creator of pacman,admitted that was only half true.Paceman's shape was also inspired by rounding up the shape of the Japanese character of a mouth.And its mouth and pacman's favorite activity,eating.which together bring us closer to the heart of a kiss.
为什么人类热爱接吻是如此的常见,在一则流行故事中提到 吃豆人的形状灵感正来源于缺了一块的披萨饼,但是Pacman之父Toru Iwatani 承认这并非完全正确,Pacman的形状灵感也来源于一个闭合的形状,也就是日文中“口“ 的形状。Pacman的嘴以及它最喜欢的行为 吃。让我们逐渐接近了“吻”的核心要义。

Evolutionary psychologists have argued that what we know today as KISSING may have come from kiss-feeding.the exchange of pre-chewed food from one mouth to another.Mother birds are famous for doing this.And many primates are frequently seen doing this as well.

Not that long ago it was common between human nothers and their children.In fact,before commercially produced or DIY baby food instructions were readily available,it made a lot of sense.
不长时间前这种行为也常在人类母子间出现,事实上 在商业生产的幼儿食品或DIY食品指南出现前,这种喂养方式意义非凡。

Recently,Alicia Silverstone uploaded a clip of herself mouth-feeding her child.It seemed strange to some people,but even though,yeah,it exchanges saliva.which,like any contact with an infant can transfer pathogens,healthy mother and healthy children can benefit from the fact that kiss-feeding provides nutrients,carbohydrates,proteins,iron and zine,which are not always available in breast milk.
最近Alicia Silverstone 上传了一段好自己用嘴喂孩子的视频,对一些人来说 这看上去很无厘头,但尽管这的确交换了唾液,而这和任何与婴儿接触的方式一样 都可能传播病菌,但健康的母亲和健康的孩子可以从这个事实中获利,咀嚼喂养可提供许多营养物如碳水化合物、蛋白质、铁和锌,母乳中并不会一直出现这些东西。

Plus,an adult's saliva can help predigest the food,making vitamins like B12 easier for the baby to absorb.So,mouth to mouth attachment has a history of intimacy,trust and closeness.

Your saliva also carries information about who you are,your level of health.and mucous membranes in our mouth  are permeable to hormones like testosterome,making a kiss a way to taste test a potential mate.A good kiss can be biological evidence that your kisser might be a good mate,So as a strategy for make selection prehistoric people who enjoyed kissing and did it more often may have made better decisions.picked better mates reproduced more successfully and eventually become the norm.giving us,US,people who love kissing,
你的唾液中也承载着有关你是谁 你的健康程度等等信息,最终薄薄的一层粘膜可以渗透睾酮等荷尔蒙,让接吻成为一种老师潜在配偶的“口味测试”,一次热吻可以作为另一半达标的生物证据,那么 作为选择的一种手段,史前热爱接吻并且接吻次数多的人可能做出的决定更理想,选择更合适的配偶 繁育后代成功率更高 最终成为人们的模范。并让我们这些热爱接吻的人得以存在。

Any infant could have seen those benefits coming from a mile away,even though an infant's vision isn't that great.From birth to four months,babies can only focus on things about eight to ten inches away from their face.which not surprisingly is about the distance to their  mothers' face while breast-feeding.
任何一个婴儿都能看到从远方来的好处,即使婴儿的视力并非如此的好,从降生到四月大时 婴儿们只能将注意力集中在距离自己脸8-10英尺远的东西上,在意料中的是 这和母乳喂养时婴儿和母亲脸庞的距离相近。

So faces,especially those looking right at us,tend to be the very first things in our lives,we can focus on and see clearly.This might explain why we are so good at detecting faces,Humans are off the charts when it comes to this,in fact,we tend to see faces even when there aren't any,It's called Pareidolia.
那么 说到脸 尤其是那些正在盯着我们看的脸,似乎也是我们生命中第一件我们能集中地看 能看清楚的事物,这可能可以解释我们如此善于辨识面庞的原因,事实上 提及此事 人们在这方面的能力早已超出量表范围,我们能在没有脸的地方看到“脸”,这就是“空想性错视”。

Because humans are so cooperative it makes sense for us to be good at recognizing faces.And more importantly detecting when someone is looking directly at us,and clearly expressing when we are looking at someone else.A predator who lives by not being seen,needs a gaze that's less obvious.
人类的合作意识如此地强 以至于我们善于辨识人脸完全说得通,更重要的理 能在某些人盯着我们看的时候有所感受,并且当我们在看别人的时候能表达清楚,以不被发觉为生的捕食者 需要让他们的眼光不那么明显。  

In fact,research has shown that our surprisingly white scleras,the area that borders the iris,isn't just an accident,But is a vital piece of human eye morphology that makes it easier for us to ascertain the direction of someone else's gaze at a glance,We also have impressive gaze direction networks inside our brains,containing individual neurons that fire when someone is staring directly at us,but that stop firing if that gaze shifts just a degree or two.
事实上 研究表明我们那如此洁白的巩膜,也就是虹膜边境的东西,并非是个巧合,但从人眼形态学来看这至关重要 它让我们更容易在一瞥间确定其他人所注视的方向,我们大脑中有着令人惊异的注视方向判别系统,包括许多神经元个体 并会在我们被人注视的时候发生冲动,但当别人目光转过一两度之后冲动就会消失。

So,yeah,you can tell when you are being watched,We humans are quite sensitive to it,even those of us with scopophobia,the fear of being stared at.But to be sure,in order for this to work.the other person's gaze must be within you line of sight,your field of vision that is you can see them.
那么 的确 在别人看你的时候你会有感觉,我们人类对此特别敏感,即便是那些害怕被别人盯着 有着“被视恐怖”的人,但是 这里要说清楚 为人使这种方法有效,其他人凝视你的目光必须在你的视线之内,也就是你的视野之内 你能看到他们(盯着你)。

Otherwise,if the stare is coming say,from behind,there's no evidence that people can tell they are being watched.The psychic staring effect falls within the realm of psudoscience,No widely accepted studies have ever found evidence that it exists.
否则 比如凝视的目光从身后而来,没有证据能说明人可以感受到他们被注视着,这种超自然的凝视效应最终被归结到了伪科学的范畴内,尚无广泛承认的研究能证明它的确存在。

Anecdotally,what's more likely is that the very act of rubbernecking to see who's watching causes people to look up and for your gazes to attach.But what about attachment when no one is watching?
有趣的是 人们伸长脖子东张西望来寻找盯着他们的人反倒造成了人们目光的交汇,那么那种无人注视时的“依恋”又是什么?

One explanation for an infant's love attachment to their mother doesn't involve vision or staring,but instead,food.The idea is that we love our mothers because as soon as we are born.they are a source of life-sustaining nourishment.
婴儿喜欢依恋在母亲身边的原因之—,和视野范围或凝视无关 但与食物有关,意思就是我们之所以爱母亲 是因为我们出生时,她们是维系我们生命的食物来源之一。

But what if that nourishment came not from a loving mother,but from a scary wire mother?In the 1950s,Harry Harlow conducted a series of famous but controversial experiments.on monkeys at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.Harlow's findings have substantial implications on  our understanding of attachment.
但是如果食物并非来自于慈爱的母亲,而是一位吓人的“电线母亲”呢?在上世纪五十年代 Harry Harlow 进行了一系列著名但颇有争议的实验,实验在威斯康星大学麦迪逊分校进行 对象是猴子。Harlow's的发现对于我们对依恋的理解有着重大影响。

By today's standards,his work would largely be considered unethical,And one of his most famous experiments,Harlow separated young monkeys from their mothers as soon as they were born,and stuck them in cages with two fake mothers.A soft one wrapped in cloth that did nothing and a cold mechanical mother made of wire,but nonetheless did provide  food,But despite being a cupboard mother.the young baby monkeys didn't bond with her,
而从今天的标准而言 他的工作很大程度上会被认为有悖伦理,在他最著名的实验之一中,Harlow在小猴子出生时就把它们从母猴身边带走,把他们关到有两个假“母亲”的笼子里,一个是软软的 包裹在布中什么都不做的“母亲”,另一个是由电线做成的冷血母亲,但是它会提供食物,但是 尽管它为猴子提供食物,猴子们却不依赖它。

When Harlow or his team scare the baby monkeys with a strange contraption,the monkeys ran and clung not to their wire source of life sustaining nourishment,but to the soft,cuddly and otherwise useless cloth mother.
当Harlow或团队成员用奇怪装置吓猴子的时候,猴子逃跑了 但并未抱在为它提供食物的那个“电线母亲”身上,而是那个柔软却毫无用处的布妈妈。

This suggested that warmth and comfort was more important than food,when it came to nurturing attachment.Harlow also built a rejecting mother,which used a blast of pressurized  air to push baby monkeys away.But instead of finding a another source of comfort.these monkeys clung even tighter at all times.than monkeys raised without rejecting mothers.
这说明了温暖和安慰比食物更重要,当我们提到抚养时的依恋的话,Harlow也做了一个喜欢排斥的母亲,它会用压缩空气把猴子推开,但是 猴子们并未寻找其他的能求得安慰的东西,它们反倒抱得更紧 而且一直是这样,比那些不会“气绝”的母亲抚养大的猴子抱得更紧。

And this is what blows my mind,The instinct for warmth and comfort in newborn creature is so strong,It not only resists attempts to frustrate it,but is paradoxically strengthen by it,Eckhard Hess tested this by using electric shocks to discourage duckings from following the object they were imprinted on.But it only strengthen the behavior and made them follow more closely than never before.
这让我为之震惊,新生儿寻找温暖和安慰的本能是如此的强烈,它不仅没被各种抵抗阻挠 反而很矛盾得加强了,Eckhard Hess验证了这一理论 他用电击来阻止鸭子去跟随它们生来就要跟随的东西,但这反而加强了这种行为,让它们比任何时候都跟得更紧。

The fact that a wire mother,or an rejecting mother or receiving the electric shock from attaching their mother,would cause more attachment,more love,more dependence,seems like a paradox,Paradoxes can teach us,as Oscar Wilde put it,A paradox is the truth standing on its head to attract attention,And what gets our attention here is the effect uncertainty can have.
事实是 无论电线母亲还是一直在排斥的母亲,或者说在跟随母亲的遭到的电击,都会产生更强的依恋 更多的爱以及更强的依赖感,听上去似乎是个矛盾,矛盾能让我们有所收获,正如Oscar Wilde所说,矛盾就是那些以倒立来吸引我们关注的真理,这里所吸引我们的是不确定性带来的结果。

In 1955.A.E.Fisher conducted an experiment on puppies,His team separated puppies into three groups:members of the first group were treated kindly every time they approach to a researcher;Members of the second group were punished for approaching the researchers and puppies in the third group were randomly treated kindly or punished,They grew up never knowing what to expect,Their world was not a world of kindness or punishment,but rather,one of uncertainty.

What's really chilling is that the study found that that group,the third group of puppies round up being the most attached to the researchers.The third group loved the researchers the strongest and was the most dependent upon them.
让我们震惊的是 研究者发现是那一组,是第三组狗狗们最终对研究者的依赖最强,第三组狗狗们对研究者们的爱最深,也是最依赖他们的一组。

Guy Murchie call this "The polarity principle".Stress,including the mental stress of uncertainty is ingredient in attachment or love,And perhaps even manifestations of hatred is polar opposite somehow enhance love,Uncertainty,psychologically can lead to some of the greatest feeling of attachment and dependence.
Guy Murchie称此为“反向原理”,压力 包括心理压力和不确定性是依恋和爱的原料之一,可能表现出的仇恨也会南辕北辙 在一定程度上加深爱意,不确定性 在心理上会产生一些最深最强烈的依恋和依赖感 。

Good things and bad things in our lives often seem radom and out of our control.So it's no surprise that we often react with blind,love and acceptance,in the face of unfair existance.because what else should we supposed to do?
我们生活中好事坏事看似随机,也在我们控制范围之外,因此我们常做出盲从 热爱或是接受的反应不足为奇,当我们面对所存在的不公平时,因为除此之外我们还能做什么呢?

We are that third group of puppies,But investigating uncertainty,conquering it,so as to make the best decisions possible is advantageous,So overtime,life has favored activities that turn uncertainty into knowledge.Not every person out there is the best mate for you.But if you didn't matter which one you picked,A kiss,a taste test wouldn't be necessary,And it wouldn't need to feel so good  or bring us so much pleasure.
我们就是那第三组小狗,而深究不确定之事 征服它以作出最好的决定本身对我们有利,渐渐地 生命中的大多事情都会将不确定性转化成知识,并非所有人都是最适合你的伴侣。但如果你并不在意选择哪个的话,若一个吻 一个口味测试并非必要,并且并不需要这个吻感觉多好 或是带来多少乐趣的话。

So go out there and kiss someone today.
那么 今天就请走出房门 给某个人一个吻吧。

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