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[煎蛋小学堂]埃博拉怎么又是蝙蝠的错?

2015-01-08    来源:煎蛋小学堂    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

[煎蛋小学堂]埃博拉怎么又是蝙蝠的错?

节目简介:

你是不是对日常生活中一些稀松平常的现象产生过好奇心?

到底为什么会是酱紫的呢?

科普类视频节目《煎蛋小学堂》几分钟为让你茅塞顿开,双语文本+视频+MP3更是不容错过的英语口语、口译好素材呢~~

还在等什么,一起来一场对未知世界的奇妙探索之旅吧~~

参考双语文本:

Nipah, Hendra, Ebola, Marburg, SARS, these are some of the world's scariest viruses, Hemorrhagic fevers like Ebola are extremely fatal, They kill up to 90% of people infected, while SARS, a corona virus, has a lower mortality rate, but spreads incredibly rapidly.
尼帕、亨德拉、埃博拉、马尔堡、非典型肺炎,它们都是世界上最危险的病毒。埃博拉病毒这类出血热极其致命。它们会杀死高达90%的受感染者。尽管冠状病毒SARS的致病率没那么高,但它传播得快。

All of these nasty pathogens have surfaced in humans in just the last 50 years. And they are all carried by bats, which to be clear, really isn't bats' fault. The recent rise and outbreaks is likely due to humans and our animals creeping ever farther into bats' territory, especially in the tropics.
这些臭名昭著的病毒都是近50年内出现在人类中的。而其携带者均为蝙蝠。澄清一点 这真不是蝙蝠的错。最近(疫情)上升和爆发很可能由于,我们和我们的牲畜过深地侵入蝙蝠栖息地,尤其在热带地区。

In Malaysia, for example, the spread of commercial pig farms into bat inhabited forest led to the first human outbreak via pigs of Nipah. And in Australia, human Hendra cases are cropping up as destruction of native forest, forces fruit bats to feed in suburban gardens.
例如,在马来西亚,商业养猪场扩散至蝙蝠栖息地的森林,造成尼帕病毒首次通过猪在人类中爆发。在澳大利亚,人类破坏原生森林,致使果蝠飞入郊区花园,使得亨德拉病毒浮出水面.

But still, bats do appear to carrying more human-killing diseases than pretty much any other animal. One big reason is that with a few notable exceptions, bats love company. Different kinds of bats often roost together in huge numbers and close quarters which helps viruses spread, not only between individuals, but also between species.
不过蝙蝠携带对人类致命病毒的数量的确超过绝大多数动物。一个主要原因是:除去特殊情况,蝙蝠喜欢群居,不同种蝙蝠会大量聚集在闭塞空间内,使得病毒在个体及种群间广泛传播。



What's more, most infected bats don't die. It lives pretty normal bat lives, flapping around and giving the viruses time to spread. In fact, flight may be the reason bats are so resilient to infection. As a rule, mammals can't produce the immense amounts of energy needed for flight without also producing a lot of reactive waste products that damage our DNA.
另外 大多数受感染蝙蝠不会死亡。它仍活得好好的,四处飞行让病毒得以蔓延。其实,蝙蝠很可能因为飞行而不易受感染。一般而言,哺乳动物无法在不产生损害DNA的副产物之情况下产生可供飞行需要的大量能量。

So when our bat cousins took to the air, they level up their in-flight DNA damage repair kits and other defenses, including specialize cells that keep viral invader in check. So bats can survive the deadly viruses. But what may matter even more for humans anyway is how the viruses survived bats. Nasty as they are, most viruses are also extremely finicky.
当蝙蝠在空中飞行时,它们会增强飞行时DNA修复能力及其他防护措施,包括可以抑制入侵者的特殊细胞。这样,蝙蝠就能百毒不侵。不过,对人类更重要的,是病毒如何在蝙蝠体内生存。尽管病毒恶名远扬,它们大多十分挑剔。

In order to thrive, they required a perfectly controlled climate inside a normal resting-on-the ground mammal, But when bats take to the air, their internal temperatures cruise to around 40℃.Those frequent in-flight saunas are far toasty for your average viruses. But a few hardy viruses have evolved to tolerate the heat, which incidentally means they can definitely weather a meager human fever.
为了生存 它们需要陆生哺乳动物体内,这样精确控制的温度,而当蝙蝠飞行时,其体温将上升到40℃左右,一般病毒难以承受这种频繁的“桑拿浴”,而少数坚强的病毒则进化得能承受这种热度。也就是说,人体发烧的温度对它们只是小菜一碟。

Essentially, flight may have helped bats gain virtual immunity to viruses and trained viruses to be virtually immune to us. Stupid flying. So, what should we land-lovers do? We need bats for insect control and pollination and a whole bunch of other things. Maybe we could even learn some immune tricks from them, like how to be really good at not getting cancer.
所以 飞行帮助蝙蝠产生病毒的免疫力,也让病毒对我们“免疫”。飞泥煤啊,那么,对土地爱得深沉的我们该怎么办?我们需要蝙蝠来控制昆虫 传播花粉等等。也许我们还能像向他们学习些免疫技巧,比如怎样避免癌症。

Plus, bats aren't the biggest carriers of human disease. Humans are. Just do the math! Perhaps we'd be better off leaving bats alone and trying to control the spread of diseases carried by different kind of flying mammal.
另外 蝙蝠并不是人类病毒的最大携带者。人类才是。这还用说,也许,我们最好别再打扰蝙蝠,并控制另一种“飞行”哺乳动物所传播的疾病。



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