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走进哈佛大学英语听力01:清教徒和哈佛(音频+文本)

2015-12-09    来源:小E    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

Puritans and Harvard

清教徒和哈佛

Puritans played a very important role in Harvard history as well as in American history.
清教徒不仅在美国历史中扮演过重要角色,同样在哈佛大学的历史中也起到了重 要作用。
 
In the 16th and 17th century, a series of religious reforms took place in England Finally, the Church of England was established as the Established Church. People did not have religious freedom. Those people who did not agree with the Church of England were regarded as Separatists and were persecuted. To escape religious persecution, many people fled from England to other countries. Many Puritans chose to go to the New World.
在16和17世纪的英国发生了一系列宗教改革,最终圣公会被定为英国国教。人 们没有宗教自由。那些不同意英国国教观点的人被视为宗教分裂者,并遭到迫害。为 了逃脱宗教迫害,许多人逃离英国,前往其他国家。很多清教徒选择移民到新大陆。
 
In 1620, a ship named Mayflower left England. It transported the English Separatists, better known as Pilgrims, from Plymouth, England to Plymouth, Massachusetts, the United States. There were 102 passengers, more than one third of whom were Puritans. During the following decade, the number of Puritans grew. Then in 1628 these Puritans established the Massachusetts Bay Colony.
1620年,一艘名为“五月花号”的船离开了英国,它载着英国宗教分离派——更 熟悉的称号是“清教徒前辈移民”,离开了英国的普利茅斯前往美国马萨诸塞州的普 利茅斯。船上有102名乘客,其中1/3多的人是清教徒。在接下来的10年中,清教徒 队伍逐渐壮大起来,并于1628年建立了马萨诸塞湾殖民地。
 
Many Puritans had received classic style of higher education in Oxford University and Cambridge University in England. They wanted to pass on to their descendants this kind of education. Besides, these colonists saw colleges as an effective way to disperse religious belief. Therefore, in 1636 the first and oldest institution of higher learning in the United States was established by vote of the Great and General Court of Massachusetts Bay Colony, 140 years earlier than the foundation of the United States.
许多清教徒都曾在英国的牛津和剑桥大学 接受过古典式的高等教育,他们想把这种教育 传给子孙后代。此外,这些殖民者把大学看做 是传播宗教信仰的有效途径。所以,1636年马 萨诸塞湾殖民地法院投票通过并建立了美国第 一所也是最古老的一所高等教育机构,比美国建国早了140年。
 
The institution was initially named “New College” or “the College at New Towne"(or “Cambridge College”). The town where the college located was named Cambridge, because many Puritans had studied in Cambridge University. The name of the town demonstrated that many people still cherished their memory of life in England. Although they had been persecuted in England, many people still saw England as their motherland. The college followed the style of English universities as well. Then in 1639 the college was renamed Harvard College after a benefactor called John Harvard who was a clergyman. Therefore, in a sense, Harvard University was the product of religious activities.
这所机构最初被命名为“新学院”或“新市民学院”(又名“剑桥学院”)。因为 许多清教徒都出身于剑桥大学,所以学院所在镇被命名为“剑桥”(现称“坎布里奇”)。 小镇的名字表明了许多人仍然怀念在英国的生活。虽然在那里受到了压迫,但这时许 多人还把英国看做自己的祖国,学院的模式也是延续了英国那些大学的模式。1639年 学院以一位名叫约翰哈佛的捐赠者重新命名,改名为哈佛学院,而约翰哈佛本人是 个牧师。所以,从某种意义上讲,哈佛大学是宗教活动的产物


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