用户名: 密码: 验证码:    注册 | 忘记密码?
首页|听力资源|每日听力|网络电台|在线词典|听力论坛|下载频道|部落家园|在线背单词|双语阅读|在线听写|普特网校

走进哈佛大学英语听力02:从宗教大学到非宗教大学(音频+文本)

2015-12-09    来源:小E    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

从宗教大学到非宗教大学

Harvard College was founded in 1636 as a Puritan institution and a training ground for ministers. In the first 200 years, however, it gradually shook off the religious control and became a secular university.

1636年哈佛学院成立时,是个清教机构和培养牧师的地方。但在前200年它逐渐摆脱了宗教控制,成为一所非宗教大学。
 
During its early years, the College offered a classic academic course based on the English university model but consistent with the prevailing Puritan philosophy of the first colonists in New England. Many of its earliest graduates went on to become clergymen in Puritan churches throughout New England. The Puritan minister in town provided direct oversight of Harvard.
早期的哈佛学院按照英国大学的模式开设了古典学术课程,但这些课程仍都保持与新英格兰第一批殖民者的清教哲学一致。早期很多学生毕业后都继续在新英格兰各地的清教教堂里当牧师。剑桥(又称坎布里奇)镇上的清教牧师直接监督哈佛大学。
 
Harvard’s early motto was Christo et Ecclesiae “For Christ and the Church” instead of Veritas “Truth”. The purpose of all education was to “let every student be plainly instructed, and earnestly pressed to consider well, the main end of his life and studies is, to know God and Jesus Christ which is eternal life, and therefore to lay Christ in the bottom, as the only foundation of all sound knowledge and learning.”
哈佛大学早期的校训是“为基督,为教会”而不是“真理”。教育的全部意义在 于“让每一位学生都认真考虑以认识神与耶稣基督为永生之源,作为他人生与学习的 主要目标,因而以基督作为一切正统知识和学习的惟一基础。”
 
Obviously, this motto was preached during a period when Puritanism was in domination and when the Untied States had not yet founded. From 1607 when the first English colony Jamestown was founded to 1776 when American Revolution broke out, almost all the English colonies in North America had established religions. These colonies discriminated and persecuted believers in deism and atheism, and restricted the development of science. Even so, Harvard College was brave enough to struggle against Puritanism. The 1708 election of the first president John Leverett marked a turning of the College toward intellectual independence from Puritanism. Although he was a clergyman, Leverett set the principle of independence of Harvard academy of religion.
非常明显,这个校训是在美国建国前的宗教专制时期鼓吹的。从1607年第一个英属殖民地詹姆斯敦建立开始,直至1776年的美国独立战争,北美洲各英属殖民地 都有法定宗教。这些殖民地歧视和迫害自然神论和无神论的信仰者,并且限制科学的发展。即便如此,哈佛学院仍勇敢地同清教主义做斗争。1708年第一任校长约翰·李维立特的当选标志着哈佛学院开始独立于清教。虽然李维立特是个牧师,但他确定了哈佛学术独立于宗教的原则。
 
After the foundation of the United States,Christian tyranny was eliminated and the cause of education which pursued truth and science began to develop. Then in 1805 the takeover of Harvard by the Unitarians resulted in the secularization of Harvard. In 1843, Veritas “Truth” was adopted as the motto.
美国建国后,消灭了基督教专制,追求真理和科学的教育事业开始发展起来。1805年一位论派接管了哈佛,致使哈佛从宗教中分离出来。1843年“真理”成为哈佛校训。
 
Harvard University is a secular university now. However, there has, in recent years, been voices criticizing its secularity. Some people argue that the study of religion at Harvard is uniquely dysfunctional while the study is very important to analyze today’s world. They argue for more attention to the study of religion. It seems that the war between “reason” and “faith” will go on.
哈佛大学现在是个非宗教大学。但近些年来一直有声音批评其世俗化。一些人争辩说哈佛的宗教研究 极其不到位,而宗教研究对于分析当今世界是非常重 要的。这些人认为应该给予宗教研宂更多的关注。看来“理性”和“信仰”之争会持续下去


顶一下
(4)
80%
踩一下
(1)
20%
手机上普特 m.putclub.com 手机上普特
[责任编辑:katee]
------分隔线----------------------------
发表评论 查看所有评论
请自觉遵守互联网政策法规,严禁发布色情、暴力、反动的言论。
评价:
表情:
用户名: 密码: 验证码:
  • 推荐文章
  • 资料下载
  • 讲座录音
普特英语手机网站
用手机浏览器输入m.putclub.com进入普特手机网站学习
查看更多手机学习APP>>