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走进牛津大学英语听力02:牛津大学曲折的建校史(音频+文本)

2016-04-25    来源:小E    【      美国外教 在线口语培训

【牛津大学简介】牛津大学是世界十大学府之一,以美丽的大学城闻名全世界。牛津大学坐落于英格兰南部的牛津市。在牛津,处处都是优美的哥德式尖塔建筑。牛津大学是英国第一所国立大学,她为英国培育出无数的顶尖杰出人士,包括2位英国国王、26位英国首相(其中包括格莱斯顿、艾德礼、撒切尔夫人和布莱尔)、多位外国政府首脑(如美国前总统克林顿)、48位诺贝尔奖获得者以及一大批著名科学家。该大学共有30多个学院,各具特色。牛津与剑桥是英国的骄傲,二校享誉全球,其地位之特殊除渊源于英国上层社会以外,还在于其悠久的历史与独特的学制。在英国社会里,牛剑(Oxbridge)一词即是二校的简称。 

 
【双语文本】
The University of Oxford, located in the English city of Oxford, is the oldest surviving university in the English-speaking World, which consists of those counties or regions that use the English language to one degree or another. Though the exact date of its foundation remains uncertain, there exists evidence of teaching there as early as 1096. The Oxford University developed rapidly from 1167,when Henry II banned English students from attending the University of Paris. Nowadays, it is regarded as one of the word’s leading universities. However, it experienced a tortuous process of growth.
牛津大学是现存的英语世界历史最悠久的大学之一,它位于英国的牛津市。英语世界包含那些在某种程度上使用英语的国家或地区。虽然人们还不确定牛津大学建校的确切日期,但是有证据表明早在1096'年牛津就有教学活动了。从1167年亨利二世下令禁止英国的学生进人巴黎大学学习开始,牛津大学就迅速地发展起来。如今,它已经被公认为是世界名列前茅的大学之一。但是,牛津大学 的发展并不是一帆风顺的。
 
Teaching suspended in 1209 because of the execution of two Oxford scholars by townspeople. An Oxford University scholar killed a woman by mistake when he practised shooting, which activated the contradiction between townsfolk and scholars existing for a long time. As a result,two Oxford scholars were convicted of manslaughters of the woman and were hanged in public. In protest at the hanging, the Oxford went into suspension, with the scholars left Oxford one after another for a number of other locations. These exiled Oxford scholars arrived at Cambridge, and stayed on the River Cam. Therefore, came into being Cambridge, another well known university in Britain. The scholars were not invited back to Oxford until 1214.
1209年,由于牛津市民处死了牛津大学的两位学者,教学被中断了。牛津大学的一位学者在练习射箭的时候误杀了一名妇女,从而激化了牛津市民与学者之间早已存在的矛盾。结果,两名学者被定罪为是杀死那个妇女的谋杀犯,并且被当众吊死。为了表示抗议,学校停课,学者们纷纷远离这个是非之地,去寻找新的乐土。有些学者来到剑桥,在剑河边安顿下来,英国另一座知名大学——剑桥大学也因此诞生了。直到1214年,学者们才被邀请回到牛津。
 
Another severe suspension was on February 10, 1355,when a large scale riot happened in Oxford, which was called the St Scholastica Day riot. On that day, several students of Oxford disputed about the quality of beer with the townsfolk in the Swindlestok Tavern. Then, the insults in the Tavern grew into armed clashes between town and gown. In the following two days, the locals burst into students5 residential district to rob and massacre, resulting in the death of 63 students finally. Luckily, the King was in favour of the university and imposed a fine on the city. Annually thereafter, on February 10,the town mayor had to go to the University of Oxford to offer an apology, following 62 citizens. Meanwhile, they had to pay to the vice-Chancellor a fine of one penny for every student killed, it was not until 1825 that the symbolic penance ended. On 10th February 1955,a settlement agreement was reached between townspeople and the university: the Mayor was given an honorary degree and the Vice-Chancellor was made an Honorary Freeman.
另一次大的停课是在1355年2月10日,当时牛津发生了一场大骚乱,被称为修士节暴乱。那天,牛津大学的几名学生在斯温德尔斯托克客栈里因为啤酒的质量问题与市民发生了争执。接着,这场酒馆的唇枪舌战演变成了街头大战。在随后的两天里,市民们横扫大学生居住区,抢劫杀戮,最终导致63名学生丧命。所幸,国王站在了大学这边,并对牛津市处以罚金。从此以后,在每年的修士节那天,牛津市长就领着62名市民前去牛津大学赔礼道歉。同时,还要将当年的罚金交给牛津大学副校长,即为每个被打死的大学生交一枚银币。这种象征性的罚款直到1825年才结束。1955年2月10日,市民和学校师生之间达成了和解协议:牛津市长成为牛津大学的荣誉博士,副校长则成为城市的荣誉市民。
 
Although there were many conflicts between them,today the town and gown are able to live together harmoniously. On the one hand, the locals are proud of the Oxford University. On the other hand, the University attracts travellers all around the word, boosting the city’s tourism.
虽然牛津市民和学生之间曾有过很多冲突,不过,如今的他们已经能够融洽地相处了。一方面,市民们以牛津大学为荣。另一方面,大学也为牛津市吸引了世界各地的游客,加快了当地旅游业的发展。


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